Wednesday, 27 September 2017

SoTL in MedEd

Dr Goh is a graduate of the Melbourne Medical School in Australia (1987), a Fellow of the Royal College of Radiologists in the UK (1993), Fellow of the Academy of Medicine in Singapore (1998), has obtained a Master of Heath Professions Education from Maastricht University (2012), and is a Fellow of AMEE (2017). He is an Associate Professor and Senior Consultant, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National University of Singapore and National University Hospital, National University Health System, Singapore. Dr Goh practices on the Clinician Educator Track (80% clinical, 20% education), is an Associate Member of CenMED, NUS and the SoTL-Asia SIG (set up by CDTL, NUS); and is a member of the AMEE (Association for Medical Education in Europe) Technology Enhanced Learning committee. Apart from being a peer reviewer for Clinical Radiology (since 2010) and Medical Teacher (since 2006), Dr Goh is an Associate Editor of The Asia Pacific Scholar, and a member of the Panel of Reviewers for MedEdPublish. He has been practicing as a clinical radiologist for the last 27 years, and teaching at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and National University Hospital (NUH) for the last 25 years. He has a special interest in Neuroradiology, as well as Technology enhanced learning (eLearning). Dr Goh spent 5 years as the physical custodian of the departmental radiology film library, with over 100,000 hardcopy radiology teaching files. This naturally led to a journey in digital curating, and eLearning, when the department went filmless (digital) in 2002.

He has been developing and evaluating eLearning platforms and solutions for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching and learning for the last 18 years; and has presented this work at conferences, invited symposia and workshops both locally (for example in 2020) (and further in 2020) and internationally (for example in 2017) (and 2019); and invited Pecha Kucha (AMEE 2016) and Plenary (IAMSE 2020) international conference presentations. He has published papers on Technology enhanced learning / eLearning in Medical Education journals as well as online papers and reflection pieces. He was a member of the NUS task-force (2005 to 2006) successful in developing a proposal for setting up the Interactive and Digital Media Institute at NUS; as well as member of the Faculty of Medicine Differentiated Track workgroup (2004 to 2005) who was responsible for drawing up the promotion and tenure criteria for the Clinician Scholar track (benchmarked against international best practices, and subsequently accepted by NUS). 

Dr Goh has previously served as Radiology Department Clinical Director (6 years, under two HODs), Undergraduate Teaching Director (3 years), and Postgraduate Training Director (3 years); as well as serving NUH as the inaugural Chair of the hospital Risk Management and Patient Safety Committee (6 years). He has served as Honorary Secretary of the Singapore Radiological Society (3 years, on top of 3 years as committee member); a Council Member of the College of Radiologists of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore (6 years); and on organising committees for local and international scientific conferences in Radiology (International Congress of Radiology; Asian Association of Radiology Congress; and Singapore Radiological Society Annual Scientific Meetings); Biomedical Engineering; and Medical Education; including being previous Chair, organising committee, of the 11th APMEC (Asia Pacific Medical Education Conference) 2014; member of the organising committee for the previous 16th APMEC 2019, and upcoming 17th APMEC 2020; a member of the organising committee eLearning symposium for AMEE 2015, Glasgow; and a member of the organising committee TEL symposium for AMEE 2019. Dr Goh has experience contributing to, and as editor of the NUH Radiology department newsletter; as well as both writer, and editor of the daily bulletin for the International Congress of Radiology. He has served as publications co-ordinator for both the International Congress of Radiology and Asian Association of Radiology Congresses. As part of efforts to support public education on healthcare, he spent 3 seasons as a presenter of a healthcare program on national television in Singapore, 'Mind Your Body', on a voluntary basis. 

“Passions - Technology enhanced learning, Education, Radiology. Technology as a tool, platform and enabler to support and augment face to face customised teaching and learning; with educational principles as the foundation; and Radiology, as well as Medical Education Faculty Development and Scholarship as my academic and clinical focus.” 

His current focus is on building and evaluating the use of hyperlinked radiology and educational case repositories in medical education. Have archived >14,400 (anonymised) radiology cases and >10,000 links to educational resources, with >1,000,000 page views, as of 26 October 2019; and with >6,000,000 online views of all posts, individual photos and illustrations, since Oct 2011

The material can be used for both exemplar teaching in undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as thematic case collections to train beyond competency and proficiency toward expert performance and mastery in clinical Radiology, as well as professional practice as a medical educator and educational scholar. 

As an intellectual, and value add + what I bring to the table exercise:long term, deep experience and insight using blogs, eRepositories, social media/online data (learning) analytics for student engagement (and learning); an obsession with / (consuming) passion for and focus on using and evaluating free / open-source / off the shelf eLearning / TEL platforms and solutions.

see also


Developing digital scholarship in Medical Education (overview of my journey)

Presenting peer reviewed thematic conference papers twice a year on topic of eLearning/blended learning (at APMEC and AMEE) biannually from 2003 to 2008 → to refining eLearning theme in conference papers highlighting applied educational theory in undergraduate medical education and postgraduate radiology training (at APMEC and AMEE) biannually from 2009 to present (using multiple case studies from a digital repository with deliberate practice) → starting and completing two year Maastricht MHPE program (in 2012) → publishing short MedEdWorld reflections starting from 2013 → peer reviewed extended abstracts/papers for conference presentation on topic of the use of digital repositories + coupled with applied deliberate practice and mastery training paradigms from 2013 → published educational research studies, educational tips and reflections in peer reviewed Medical Education journals / case study in Book Chapter since 2014 + while simultaneously building up on a daily basis a repository of online (anonymised) radiology cases and links to medical education online resources for medical education and faculty development (since October 2011, currently with over 14,400 (anonymised) radiology cases and over 10,000 links to educational resources and over 1,000,000 page views of all blogposts; and over 6,000,000 online views of all posts, individual photos and illustrations; over the last 7 years)  + engaging in faculty development and the educational scholarship cycle in parallel with above efforts by developing and presenting eLearning / Technology Enhancing Learning workshops and symposia, since 2010; and more recently workshops on the Flipped Classroom, Use of Videos in Medical Education, and Qualitative Research in Medical Education.

Building a portfolio of academic scholarship and The academic cycle 
Goh Poh Sun (first draft on April 10th, 2016 at 1737hrs)

"The process of building a portfolio of academic scholarship requires attention to, as well as regular participation in and focus on an area of academic work; getting training, building experience, and developing an understanding of current and topical academic conversations in that area; by reading, attending major academic conferences, through conference presentations, presenting at symposia and workshops; developing ideas further and deepening insights through reflection and discourse; then continuing the academic cycle by getting feedback on these insights by progressively disseminating these ideas through case studies, reflection pieces and peer reviewed papers, both online and through traditional academic peer reviewed publications and conference presentations."

Understanding basic theory using a few illustrative examples. Mastering a topic by exposure to and experience with many examples
Goh Poh Sun (First draft June 4, 2015 @ 7pm)

Typical examples or real-life scenarios can be used to illustrate theory, and help students understand fundamental principles. Mastering a topic usually requires exposure to and experience with many examples, both typical and atypical, common to uncommon including subtle manifestations of a phenomenon. The traditional method of doing this is via a long apprenticeship, or many years of practice with feedback and experience. A digital collection of educational scenarios and cases can support and potentially shorten this educational and training process. Particularly if a systematic attempt is made to collect and curate a comprehensive collection of all possible educational scenarios and case-based examples, across the whole spectrum of professional practice. Online access to key elements, parts of and whole sections of these learning cases; used by students with guidance by instructors under a deliberate practice and mastery training framework, can potentially accelerate the educational process, and deepen learning.

see example blogpost link below

This article investigates the relation between mind wandering and the spacing effect in inductive learning. Participants studied works of art by different artists grouped in blocks, where works by a particular artist were either presented all together successively (the massed condition), or interleaved with the works of other artists (the spaced condition). The works of 24 artists were shown, with 12, 15, or 18 works by each artist being provided as exemplars. Later, different works by the same artists were presented for a test of the artists' identity. During the course of studying these works, participants were probed for mind wandering. It was found that people mind wandered more when the exemplars were presented in a massed rather than in a spaced manner, especially as the task progressed. There was little mind wandering and little difference between massed and spaced conditions toward the beginning of study. People were better able to correctly attribute the new works to the appropriate artist (inductive learning) when (a) they were in the spaced condition and (b) they had not been mind wandering. This research suggests that inductive learning may be influenced by mind wandering and that the impairment in learning with massed practice (compared to spaced practice) may be attributable, at least in part, to attentional factors-people are "on task" less fully when the stimuli are massed rather than spaced.
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Inductive learning -- that is, learning a new concept or category by observing exemplars -- happens constantly, for example, when a baby learns a new word or a doctor classifies x-rays. What influence does the spacing of exemplars have on induction? Compared with massing, spacing enhances long-term recall, but we expected spacing to hamper induction by making the commonalities that define a concept or category less apparent. We asked participants to study multiple paintings by different artists, with a given artist's paintings presented consecutively (massed) or interleaved with other artists' paintings (spaced). We then tested induction by asking participants to indicate which studied artist (Experiments 1a and 1b) or whether any studied artist (Experiment 2) painted each of a series of new paintings. Surprisingly, induction profited from spacing, even though massing apparently created a sense of fluent learning: Participants rated massing as more effective than spacing, even after their own test performance had demonstrated the opposite.
above abstract from

MHPE (2009-2012). Faculty development program at MEU and CenMED, NUS (since 2010); presentations, workshops and symposia at APMEC (since 2011) and AMEE (since 2012); workshop at Faculty Development Conference in Helsinki, Finland (2017); as invited faculty for SIF program and SEARAME conference in Colombo, Sri Lanka (2014); medical education conferences in Kaohsiung, Taiwan (2015); closing Pecha Kucha session at AMEE2016, Barcelona, Spain (2016); Jakarta, Indonesia (2016, and 2019); Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2018); Tokyo, Japan (2018); Basel, Switzerland (2018); Taipei, Taiwan (2018); visiting professor in Almaty, Kazakhstan (2015); plenary speaker, IAMSE 2020, Denver, USA, and Hong Kong (2020). FAMEE (2017).

MedEd Reusable (Modular) Learning Objects

Click on image / "tile" above to go to Learning Neuroradiology Blog

Instructions on how to add link to an image on website/blogpost below

See one, do one, teach one ..... to See, Show-Do with Feedback, Teach with Feedback-Reflection-Scholarship from Poh-Sun Goh

Scholarship in Medical Education - Beyond Boyer, Digital Scholarship from Poh-Sun Goh

eLearning or TEL in MedEd - A hierarchy of Engagement and Learning from Poh-Sun Goh

(faculty development workshop for medical educators, for around 25 participants)
(large group presentation for postgraduate clinical audience, for around 400 to 500 participants)

(small group postgraduate radiology resident interactive tutorial, for around 15 residents)
(small group undergraduate medical school year 3 interactive tutorial, for around 20 students)
(large group undergraduate medical school year 2 lecture, for 300 students)



Stephenson CR, Vaa BE, Wang AT, Schroeder DR, Beckman TJ, Reed DA, Sawatsky AP. Conference presentation to publication: a retrospective study evaluating quality of abstracts and journal articles in medical education research. BMC Med Educ. 2017 Nov 9;17(1):193. doi: 10.1186/s12909-017-1048-3. PubMed PMID: 29121891; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5680828.

Cole D, Rengasamy E, Batchelor S, Pope C, Riley S, Cunningham AM. Using social media to support small group learning. BMC Med Educ. 2017 Nov 10;17(1):201. doi: 10.1186/s12909-017-1060-7. PubMed PMID: 29126402; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5681766.


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Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

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(as of 18 October 2017 @ 1019am)

Modular Blended eFaculty Development using Blogs and Instagram


Instagram stream (below) as hyperlinked, online-mobile accessible, interactive SlideDeck

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Focus on user / customer experience (above)

Focus on "job to be done" (hired for) see below

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"Digital learning technologies can enable students to grasp concepts more quickly and fully, to connect theory and application more adeptly, and to engage in learning more readily, while also improving instructional techniques, leveraging instructor time, and facilitating the widespread sharing of knowledge. Digital technologies will enable this in new and better ways and create possibilities beyond the limits of our current imagination...
Digital learning today is where smartphones were a decade ago. Adoption is taking hold, and the technology has proven its value along some dimensions. We are on the frontier. We can see new possibilities in front of us. Still more possibilities are beyond our imagination. A decade from now, capabilities we currently think of as emerging and others that we can barely imagine will be as ubiquitous as the smartphone is today..."
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"...Traditional universities have a few trump cards. As well as teaching, examining and certification, college education creates social capital. Students learn how to debate, present themselves, make contacts and roll joints. How can a digital college experience deliver all of that?
The answer may be to combine the two..."
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"...What the Internet provides is a new means of distribution that allows knowledge to be propagated on a global scale for little or no cost. The producer (the professor) no longer has to have his or her “market” for their teaching limited to face-to-face distribution but instead can, by putting it up on the web in an online course or a MOOC, distribute it to the whole world...
Today most students still take face-to-face classes and geography plays a big factor in the decision about where they’re going to go. MOOCs may offer free courses from top-tier universities, but MOOCs (for the most part) don’t offer credit or any other recognized credential for students who enroll for the free version. Faculty, even if they’re teaching online, still are the primary creators and distributors of the information they teach…as long as they’re expected to interact with their students, answer questions, and participate in discussions. The village may have expanded its borders a bit, but most of the goods it produces are still being distributed to a limited range of customers.
For now..."
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"One of the most consistent findings from our research is that, for some tasks, medium doesn't seem to matter. If all students are being asked to do is to understand and remember the big idea or gist of what they're reading, there's no benefit in selecting one medium over another.
But when the reading assignment demands more engagement or deeper comprehension, students may be better off reading print...
we found a select group of undergraduates who actually comprehended better when they moved from print to digital. What distinguished this atypical group was that they actually read slower when the text was on the computer than when it was in a book. In other words, they didn't take the ease of engaging with the digital text for granted. Using this select group as a model, students could possibly be taught or directed to fight the tendency to glide through online texts."
above quotes from article below

"Today, we’re no longer trusting machines just to do something, but to decide what to do and when to do it. The next generation will grow up in an age where it’s normal to be surrounded by autonomous agents...How do we teach our children to question not only the security and privacy implications but also the ethical and commercial intentions of a device designed by marketers?"
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Co-Parenting With Alexa (NYTimes, 7 October 2017)

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Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

"Requirements for Data Informed Personal, and Personalised eLearning and eTeaching

Privacy. Data Security. Responsible Access/Use. Awareness. Digital literacy. Thoughtful use. Confidence. Public networks and platforms + "Free" commercial/ad driven networks and platforms vs Private/Institutional Intranets and Learning Management Systems

What are some of the key requirements necessary to take full advantage of an eLearning/Technology enhanced learning platform and process?

How can we take advantage of the flexibility, low cost (often "free"), scale and reach of public networks and platforms (for example Instagram, WhatsApp, WeChat, Facebook, Blogger, LinkedIn), and combine this with the greater privacy, rule based use and governance of private (password, dual-key, biometric secured) and institutional networks, which are still potentially vulnerable to potential data breeches, data misuse, hacking, and data loss/theft?

Do we respond by not participating? or restricted/limited participation? creating silos, both online, and some off-line? Not using digital formats? Going offline?

I believe one sensible, and safe approach is to combine, or blend the use of fully public, semi-private, and private digital platforms and approaches, some off-line, some online.

We can learn from our current cautious, and informed use of digital medical records by our healthcare systems; and translate strategies and approaches to the use of student and trainee records and data (learning and training logs, data streams and artefacts). We can also learn from financial practice and the finance industry, in their use of encryption and blockchain for example, at an institutional and system level."
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