Sunday, 9 September 2018

The Uses of VR and AR in Medical Education

The uses of VR and AR in Medical Education- with a focus on smart uses, successful examples of application, and potential uses to meet unmet needs in medical education.

Annual Academic Meeting, Taipei, November 17, 2018

Dear TSSH participants,

The morning session will review the literature and pedagogy of VR and AR. Modelled after the presentation I gave at the symposium at AMEE 2018

The afternoon session will move on to take the next step. Described in the rather long title of the afternoon session - "Starting the journey to develop and use material for VR and AR in Medical Education: Without funding, by using what is at hand, a design thinking and innovative blueprinting process, anchored by sound pedagogy and a market orientation to the educational needs of the user"

Both morning and afternoon presentations will be very interactive with the audience, who are requested to bring an internet enabled mobile device/tablet/laptop to both morning and afternoon sessions. I will be live presenting directly off the internet, have requested that the venue have high bandwidth fast internet for both the presenter (myself) on a presenting laptop with wired mouse on podium, as well as for the audience.

The presentation content that I will use with be delivered directly from the following website (link below)

I look forward to meeting all participants at the TSSH conference, and many interesting discussions.
See you at the sessions!

Goh Poh Sun

Short Biography below:

Goh Poh Sun
Associate Professor and Senior Consultant, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National University of Singapore (NUS) and National University Hospital Singapore
Associate Member, Centre for Medical Education, NUS

Poh-Sun (MBBS(Melb) 1987, FRCR 1993, FAMS 1998, MHPE(Maastricht) 2012 and FAMEE 2017) practices on the clinician educator tract (80/20 time allocation clinical/education) augmenting his education and training time allocation with technology, and regular early morning focused scholarly efforts, spent developing and evaluating the use of open access online digital repositories in clinical training, and medical education faculty development, under a mastery training and deliberate practice framework. 
More here


Situated Cognition, Preparation (to learn, to train), To immerse oneself (look around, feel or sense - urgency, relevance), Motivation - Relevance, Urgency

Role of and Where and When to use VR and AR in Medical Education from Poh-Sun Goh

Some background reading and online resources below:

Ting, D. S. W., Sim, S. S. K. P., Yau, C. W. L., Rosman, M., Aw, A. T., & Yeo, I. Y. S. (2016). Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education. International Journal of Ophthalmology, 9(6), 920–924.

Please do a compare and contrast exercise with use of VR and AR in Medical Education and Training vs

Literature informed Pedagogy of VR and AR in Medical Education from Poh-Sun Goh
(above and below market example ... for illustration, and not endorsement of this platform or product ... for discussion ..... cost vs value ... usability, access, upgradability ...

Vargas González, A.N.; Kapalo, K.; Koh, S.; LaViola, J. Exploring the virtuality continuum for complex rule-set education in the context of soccer rule comprehension. Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2017, 1, 30.

Cruz-Neira, C.; Fernández, M.; Portalés, C. Virtual Reality and Games. Multimod. Technol. Interact. 2018, 2, 8.

Google search 'role of vr and ar in novice to expert training continuum'

Google search for 'when and where to use vr and ar in medical education'

Literature and Pedagogy VR and AR in MedEd (updated Tile version) from Poh-Sun Goh

Gopalakrishnakone P, Lu JF, Goh PS, Abeykoon A, Fernando ONN, Cheok AD.

2nd International Conference on Education, Training and Informatics, Orlando, Florida; 2011
P Gopalakrishnakone, A Abeykoon, N Fernando, PS Goh, A Cheok. Multimodal Virtual Anatomy Learning Tool For Medical Education. (Best paper award from session on Learning Technologies, Strategies for Assessing Student Learning and Teaching).

Lu Jianfeng - research fellow, working full time in radiology department, NUH; under my direct primary supervision - IDM grant (held by Adrian Cheok, IDMI as PI, and myself as Co-PI) to create and evaluate digital chest atlas based on radiological imaging (completed project, two conference papers, two publications)
(Sep 2008 – Mar 2010)

JF. Lu, L Li, PS. Goh. A multimodal virtual anatomy e-Learning tool for medical education.
Entertainment for Education, Digital Techniques and Systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (2010), 278-287.

J.F. Lu, L. Li, PS. Goh. A multimodal virtual anatomy e-Learning tool for medical education. Proceedings of the Entertainment for education and 5th International Conference on e-Learning and games.
Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg. 2010

see also

illustration above and below from

above from (and is overview of following examples below)
(left sided tension pneumothorax)
(right lower lobe pneumonia)
(right upper lobe lung carcinoma)
(pulmonary oedema)
(left sided tension pneumothorax, 2nd or another example)
(right sided loculated pleural effusion)
(inwardly depressed right lower rib fractures, with associated lung contusion and haemothorax)

"I'm excited about Augmented Reality because unlike Virtual Reality, which closes the world out, AR allows individuals to be present in the world but hopefully allows an improvement on what's happening presently."
-Tim Cook
Read more at:

Apple's Tim Cook prefers augmented reality to VR (BBC website, 11 October 2017)

Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, & some important considerations (for AMEE 2016, session 11, PechaKucha 20 x 20 presentation, Wednesday, August 31st, 2016 at 1130am) (over 1,250 page views)

Role of Instagram (-like Content) in eLearning, eTeaching, Digital Research and Scholarship from Poh-Sun Goh

(as of 18 October 2017 @ 1019am)

Have archived >12,000 (anonymised) radiology cases online and over 10,000 links to educational resources, with >1,000,000 page views, as of 19 October 2018; and with >6,000,000 online views of  all posts, individual photos and illustrations (since October 2011)
Learning Neuroradiology and eLearning for MedEd Instagram Website Link
(you do not need the Instagram App to view the content, just click each square on your mobile device, laptop or desktop computer)

above from

above from

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above from

Access ≠ Accessibility from Poh-Sun Goh

above from


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