Wednesday, 26 June 2019

TeL @ AMEE 2019

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Digital Scholarship and Engagement - Indicators, Metrics, Value and Impact
Poh-Sun Goh 

eLearning or TEL(Technology Enhanced Learning) is increasingly being integrated into medical education and training, from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing education and lifelong learning settings, with increasing emphasis on blended and mobile learning, in the workplace and just-in-time settings. TEL with utilisation of digital content and engagement provides visibility of our teaching and training efforts as educators, showing ‘what we teach with, and assess on’ (Goh, 2016). TEL approaches can also be used to provide visibility and metrics of student engagement, as well as demonstrate intermediate and final outcomes of student learning (Goh & Sandars, 2016; Goh, 2017). TEL is increasing transforming medical education, going beyond substitution, augmentation and modification of learning - the ‘SAMR model’ (Puentedura, 2013). Reflective educators, and educational scholars have always sought to evaluate and assess the value and impact of their teaching and training efforts, and Digital Scholarship, with attention paid to data, indicators and metrics of engagement and output, can facilitate these efforts. Use of 'free', low cost, off the shelf, easy to use and accessible digital tools and platforms, combined with curated and created digital content repositories, by faculty who are 'digitally literate' and professional, facilitates adoption and scaling up of our scholarly efforts (Goh, 2018). This has direct benefits for faculty members during the academic appointment, appraisal and promotion process; for an academic community by making scholarly activities easily accessible, and for an institution by making academic and scholarly activities by faculty members both easily accessible and visible.

More on expanded blogpost link below



Goh, P.S. eLearning in Medical Education - Costs and Value Add. The Asia Pacific Scholar (TAPS). Published online: 2 May, TAPS 2018, 3(2), 58-60. DOI:

Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. An innovative approach to digitally flip the classroom by using an online "graffiti wall" with a blog. Med Teach. 2016 Aug;38(8):858. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Puentedura, R. R. (2013, May 29). SAMR: Moving from enhancement to transformation [Web log post].
Retrieved from

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(conference website above for final program pdf, and abstract book pdf)

(see page 4)

Ellaway RH, Topps D, Pusic M. Data, Big and Small: Emerging Challenges to
Medical Education Scholarship. Acad Med. 2019 Jan;94(1):31-36. doi:

Ellaway R, Topps D, 2017, 'METRICS: a pattern language of scholarship in medical education', MedEdPublish, 6, [4], 30,

Ellaway RH, Bates J. 2015. Exploring patterns and pattern languages of medical education. Medical Education 49(12):1189-96.

Effect of Promotion Via Social Media on Access of Articles in an Academic Medical Journal
A Randomized Controlled Trial
Widmer, R. Jay MD, PhD; Mandrekar, Jay PhD; Ward, Angelina; Aase, Lee A.; Lanier, William L. MD; Timimi, Farris K. MD; Gerber, Thomas C. MD, PhD
Academic Medicine: May 28, 2019 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - p
doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002811

Mirhosseini, F., Mehrdad, N., Bigdeli, S., Peyravi, H., & Khoddam, H. (2018). Exploring the concept of scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL): Concept analysis. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 32, 96. doi:10.14196/mjiri.32.96

International Council for Open and Distance Education. 2019. Global guidelines: Ethics in Learning Analysis. 

Michael Fire, Carlos Guestrin, Over-optimization of academic publishing metrics: observing Goodhart’s Law in action, GigaScience, Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019, giz053,

Moving closer to AMEE2019 we have the possibility of engaging potential AMEE members and conference participants "before" the workshop, on social media - then applying analytics methodology to assess this. Not to mention write an article for MedEdPublish or Medical Teacher on this experience.

A) Brief description of what you each intend to share with workshop participants during our opening 5 minute presentation

Poh-Sun - opens by giving a 5 minute introduction to what is digital scholarship and then the format of the workshop
"The use of technology to support educational scholarship has been called digital scholarship" (Goh and Sandars, 2019)

John - Digital Scholarship and online social media
Part of scholarship is dissemination of scholarly activities

Focus on how to assess the scholarship of social media posts

Alex - The spectrum of opportunities for digital scholarship and important considerations 

Peter - The use of social media for the dissemination of your scholarly work

Mike - Sharing on: Use of video media in T and L by teachers or students… types of videos, monologue and dialogue in video, interactive videos, analytics of videos

Martin - "Learning Analytics" -- definition, examples, technology.


B) Suggest one group activity that you would get one table group to work on, that you will guide and mentor

John - The challenge of online media as evidence for scholarship in medical education

To focus on evaluation of social media as evidence of medical education scholarship.

My one learning objective and skill and action step
To critically evaluate social media as evidence of medical education scholarship.

Alex - Scope a plan of action to employ digital scholarship to 3 different components of your educational practice

Peter - Use of twitter to share an article (preferably your own). We will work on writing an appropriate tweet for it

Mike - Discussion of participants proposals of what they would like to do with video for their learning with regards to designing simple and easy to use video learning resources and feedback and how to track the digital scholarship relating to this.

Martin - would depend on how long we have.  Will discuss a series of "analytics" definitions based on the Gartner framework.

Poh-Sun - Digital Scholarship to make (our efforts) visible, accessible, and assessable 

takeaway - "digital scholarship, to add to academic discourse, and get recognised for this" will highlight this idea on Social Media

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my three additional slides will be - 

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my two "Blogger, Instagram, and Twitter shared articles" will be

Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15.


Goh, PS. (2016) Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11.


We have each table give a short report of their discussions - with other groups posing one or two questions/additional discussion (short).

We bring in additional comments and contributions from wider AMEE membership who have contributed to discussion before workshop on Twitter, and other Social Media Channels (if we have time - see below section)

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Final wrap up and take home points.

Soon after workshop we

C) Post summary - take home points on Twitter, Instagram, Blogger, Padlet, Facebook

D) Write first draft of workshop "report" - for eventual MedEdWorld post, then MedEdPublish or Medical Teacher article (see below section).

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(deadline 6 February 2019; accepted for in-conference workshop on 2 May 2019)
(early bird registration ends 25 May 2019)

Bullock, A., & Webb, K. (2015). Technology in postgraduate medical education: a dynamic influence on learning?. Postgraduate medical journal, 91(1081), 646-50.

Monday, 10 June 2019

How Technology, Applied Storytelling, and Theatre can Humanise Values for Effective Practice

How Technology, Applied Storytelling, and Theatre can Humanise Values for Effective Practice

The pre-conference workshop will explore, illustrate and demonstrate how technology, applied storytelling, and theatre can nurture values for effective practice. The workshop will be highly interactive and experiential. From the use of simple storytelling techniques to more complex roleplays, participants will experience moments that promote reflection, and improve empathy, communication skills, teamwork, and professionalism.

A follow-up main conference panel discussion will go deeper into the literature and evidence underpinning the use of technology, applied storytelling, and theatre to humanise our values for effective practice. It will also involve the audience in interactive discussions, and a theatrical experience. Our aims for both the pre-conference workshop and main conference panel discussion are for participants to understand the pedagogical implications of applied storytelling and theatre in medical education, to immediately use and apply practical techniques in clinical setting, and to evoke feelings and convictions related to the session theme – to know, do, and feel.

"“In your career, you’ll have a choice: to be a physician or a healer. Be a healer.”

"Nurses are proof that superheroes live among us." - Tan Hsueh Yun, The Straits Times, Sunday, Jul 7, 2019 

Technology to Nurture Values for Effective Practice
Poh-Sun Goh

(Why before What and How)

How can technology inspire, role model, promote reflection and interactive discussion, and offer a roadmap on how to nurture values for effective practice?

We are inspired by stories. These may be told or recounted orally, in written form, performed (as a simulated performance, in theatre or the media - video, television or the movies), observed in person or from video - all of these with added reflection, which may be guided or as an interactive peer review, learning and insight developing exercise.

These stories may mimic, or be a record of real life. Professional practice, health and disease, and healthcare, are replete with narratives of suffering, comfort, and joy. These can be told from a patient’s, relatives, caregivers or professional healthcare practitioner (or member of the healthcare team’s) perspective. Or from multiple perspectives. An example of a narrative-story which gives insight into how a professional in the palliative care sector-practice might approach dying patients was recently published in the New York Times (Puri, 2019). The ending scene from the 1991 movie ‘The Doctor’ illustrates how an initially insensitive, emotionally distant medical practitioner develops a very personal insight into the perspective of the healthcare system when he himself became a patient, and was motivated to introduce a patient centred experience for medical students in his medical school’s medical program. The book ‘A taste of my own medicine: When the doctor is the patient’ by Edward E Rosenbaum in 1991 narrates a similar story.

While not only engaging, and thought provoking, these narratives and stories can encourage all of us to reflect on our roles in health and disease. As healthcare practitioners to improve our empathy, communication skills, teamwork, organisational abilities and professionalism. We can become more sensitive to a patient’s, or relative’s-caregiver’s point of view. We can become better at showing first that we care, to reassure, comfort, and communicate better. With more skill and sensitivity. To give attention to the the human side of medicine, to complement the scientific and technical side of medical practice.

Technology is one method to disseminate and share stories and narratives (Goh, 2016). To scale up our educational and training efforts. To engage students and practitioners beyond the classroom. Before, during and after traditional classroom training. We can use open source content, and low cost-free platforms to communicate with, and engage our students, and fellow practitioners. Technology makes it easier for us to create and curate content. And share this. Through websites, blogs, apps. Mobile devices with free and low cost, easy to use software and apps make it relatively simple and easy to create and edit, or curate multimedia, and video content.

We can think of a spectrum of realism to abstraction, from real life, through VR, interactive theatre, video and multimedia, audio narratives and podcasts, illustrations and photos, through written narratives, stories and texts. A complementary range of technologies ranging from most expensive and complex to “low tech” would have VR and AI on one end, through theatre, video, multimedia, audio and written narratives shared through mobile applications or Apps, websites and blogs. Examples of the use of technology to nurture core values are listed in section below.

Examples of Digital Content that can be Shared, and Technology Used to Build Empathy and Compassion

Text (quotes) - Short quotes can be memorable, easily shared, and convey the essence of an idea in brief.
“Empathy is seeing with the eyes of another, listening with the ears of another and feeling with the heart of another.” – Alfred Adler

"“In your career, you’ll have a choice: to be a physician or a healer. Be a healer.”

Narratives - form the essence of storytelling, conveying messages, contexts, and when presented well evoking an intended response
(for example regarding inequality)

Empathy courses within medical curriculum - can form the backbone of systematic instruction and guidance for medical students and healthcare practitioners
(example below)

Interactive Mobile Apps - take advantage of the increasingly ubiquitous presence of mobile technology, to engage users in interactive content and scenarios
Konrath, S (2017). Empathy: There is an App for that. Psychology Today blog.

Papoutsi, Chara & Drigas, Athanasios. (2017). Empathy and Mobile Applications. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM). 11. 57. 10.3991/ijim.v11i3.6385. 

Blogging and Social Media - is one way to raise awareness, present a point of view, and engage an online audience in interactive discussion

Tsai, S., Crawford, E., & Strong, J. (2018). Seeking virtual social support through blogging: A content analysis of published blog posts written by people with chronic pain. Digital health, 4, 2055207618772669. doi:10.1177/2055207618772669

Podcasts - take advantage of the qualities of the human voice and sounds to convey emotion and feeling, to move the listener
(multiple examples within blog below)

Illustrations and Art - the traditions of art, illustrations and photography to capture scenes of illness and healthcare can broaden the exposure and experience of healthcare practitioners to situations and points of view

Video - is a powerful visual and auditory medium that can be used to depict health and illness, and be easily shared on multiple mobile and online platforms
(for example facing depression in the elderly)

Theatre and Drama - being an audience member of live theatre and drama, viewing dramatisations of healthcare offer the opportunity to experience settings of healthcare and illness.

Matthiessen, Christian & Law, Locky. (2019). Dramatised Medical Consultations: What Are They Like and How Can We Use Them. 10.13140/RG.2.2.11929.88161.

Dow, A. W., Leong, D., Anderson, A., Wenzel, R. P., & VCU Theater-Medicine Team (2007). Using theater to teach clinical empathy: a pilot study. Journal of general internal medicine, 22(8), 1114–1118. doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0224-2

Reilly, J., Trial, J., Piver, D. E, & Schaff, P. B. (2012). Using Theater to Increase Empathy Training in Medical Students. Journal for Learning through the Arts, 8(1). Retrieved from

Bee Teng Lim, Helen Moriarty & Mark Huthwaite (2011) “Being-in-role”: A teaching innovation to enhance empathic communication skills in medical students, Medical Teacher, 33:12, e663-e669, DOI: 10.3109/0142159X.2011.611193

Video games - interactive video, online and mobile games can be designed as guided reflective exercises, to build empathy
(for example to build empathy in children)

Kral, T.R.A., Stodola, D.E., Birn, R.M. et al. Neural correlates of video game empathy training in adolescents: a randomized trial. npj Science Learn 3, 13 (2018) doi:10.1038/s41539-018-0029-6

Virtual Reality - has the ability to place the viewer in the healthcare and illness scenario, and has the unique ability to give the viewer an appreciation of the setting from the point of view of the participants

Dyer E, Swartzlander BJ, Gugliucci MR. Using virtual reality in medical
education to teach empathy. J Med Libr Assoc. 2018 Oct;106(4):498-500. doi:
10.5195/jmla.2018.518. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Schoeller, F., Bertrand, P., Gerry, L. J., Jain, A., Horowitz, A. H., & Zenasni, F. (2019). Combining Virtual Reality and Biofeedback to Foster Empathic Abilities in Humans. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2741. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02741

Artificial Intelligence - will have an increasing role in augmenting the impact of educators by scaling up our efforts to provide customised, personalised guidance and instruction

As with all use of technology to enhance, and augment our educational and training efforts, these efforts should be driven first by our instructional and educational objectives, or pedagogy before technology. With no tech, or low cost, open source, free technology and platforms then carefully and intelligently chosen to support, and augment our teaching and learning objectives.


Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Puri, S. 2019. The lesson of impermanence. New York Times. Published and accessed on 7 March 2019.

Movie ‘The Doctor’ 1991

Review of ‘A taste of my own medicine: When the doctor is the patient’ by Edward E. Rosenbaum

Robert G. Picard (2015) The humanisation of media? Social media and the reformation of communication, Communication Research and Practice, 1:1, 32-41, DOI: 10.1080/22041451.2015.1042421

Opening Comments

Welcome to this session, titled how Technology, Applied Storytelling and Theatre can Humanise Values for Effective Practice

We feel strongly that the theme of this years conference (APMEC 2020), and topic of this session, addresses an aspect of professional practice, education and training that has been relatively neglected to date.

We will examine this topic by reviewing the illness journey that all of us will undergo, as patients, relatives, healthcare practitioners and educators. We are healthy, then become ill. This may be a minor or major illness, requiring outpatient or inpatient care. We will recover, suffer chronic illness, and disability, or proceed to become critically ill, possibly require palliative care, and at some point die.

Let us examine this illness journey from several viewpoints. By posing a series of questions, and getting you to reflect on this, and discuss this as a group.

We hope to start by raising awareness, getting you to feel and experience the emotional impact of these questions, so that you might refine your professional practice, training and educational designs, to assist future patients and their relatives, as well as our junior colleagues and students.

What are these questions?

Is this a serious or minor illness?
Will I recover?
What is the prognosis?
Will I suffer?
Will it be painful?

As we reflect and discuss these questions, notice that these questions and concerns are not only universal, but reflect a very human, personal, and emotional reaction to illness.

Our patients and relatives require acknowledgement, empathy, reassurance. Their fears and concerns recognised, acknowledged and addressed.

Edmund will now take over, to lay the background of the use of storytelling and theatre in facilitating this process, and to guide us through an interactive, experiential journey.

Google search for "Art and illness"

Google search "using VR and AR for promoting empathy in illness"

Learning Empathy Through Virtual Reality: Multiple Strategies for Training Empathy-Related Abilities Using Body Ownership Illusions in Embodied Virtual Reality

Schoeller, F., Bertrand, P., Gerry, L. J., Jain, A., Horowitz, A. H., & Zenasni, F. (2019). Combining Virtual Reality and Biofeedback to Foster Empathic Abilities in Humans. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2741. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02741

Closing Comments

We hope this session has touched your hearts, and been a thought provoking, and positive experience.

We hope that by examining the emotional fears, concerns and experiences of our patients and their relatives through the illness journey has been an illuminating one.

We hope that the examination of the use of Technology, Applied Storytelling and Theatre to highlight, and examine very human, personal, and emotional issues has been helpful.

We hope you will go on to reflect upon, and refine your professional, educational and training practices. And that you will go on to use the ideas, approaches and techniques discussed to humanise our professional practice, and that of our colleagues and students.

'creativity and compassion - teamwork, communication, empathy, and winning trust'

Hinnant, A., Len-Ríos, M. E., & Young, R. (2013). JOURNALISTIC USE OF EXEMPLARS TO HUMANIZE HEALTH NEWS. Journalism studies, 14(4), 10.1080/1461670X.2012.721633. doi:10.1080/1461670X.2012.721633

Snyderman R, Gyatso T the 14th Dalai Lama. Compassion and Health Care: A
Discussion With the Dalai Lama. Acad Med. 2019 Aug;94(8):1068-1070. doi:

Thibault GE. Humanism in Medicine: What Does It Mean and Why Is It More
Important Than Ever? Acad Med. 2019 Aug;94(8):1074-1077. doi:

Hinson, Katrina & Sword, Ben. (2019). Illness Narratives and Facebook: Living Illness Well. Humanities. 8. 106. 10.3390/h8020106.