Wednesday, 22 April 2020

IAMSE 2020 plenary presentation - 'Medical Educator Roles for the Future'

How to navigate through content on this blogpost video link
(illustrated screencast video, with no audio)
Created on Screencastify.

Blogpost below contains in the following sequence, from the top 
1) Illustrations for the presentation as embedded SlideShare document, 
2) Full text transcript of presentation as embedded SlideShare document,
3) Section with separate links to online image search for 'mixed reality', 'VR', 'AR', 'Simulation', 'Virtual simulation', 'Serious games' and 'AI and machine learning' in medical education),
4) A series of Embedded Videos illustrating Mixed Reality, Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Serious Games, and recent panel discussion on AI, 
5) Full transcript of my presentation, with links to additional illustrations and open access online articles, 
6) Postscript for discussion, and 
7) Closing comment.

(session embedded Screencast videos will have audio)

Medical Educator Roles of the Future from Poh-Sun Goh

Medical Educator Roles of the Future from Poh-Sun Goh

Screencast video of section below (without audio)
(the idea of this section is to give you to a visual impression of MR, AR, VR, VR headsets, Simulation, Virtual Simulation, Serious games, AI and machine learning in medical education - to help you visualise a range of these technologies)

Google image search for:

'AI and machine learning in medical education'

"With more seamless, reliable technology and, more importantly, advances in augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR), it will soon be possible to “feel” as if everyone in a virtual group is in the same room participating in a single discussion. In addition, histology lectures and slides are already largely online, and digital simulations for anatomy dissection are already available and will improve with VR."
above quote from
Emanuel EJ. The Inevitable Reimagining of Medical Education. JAMA. 2020;323(12):1127–1128. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1227

audio interview accompanying article above

Dear Participants, 

The full text of my presentation at Virtual IAMSE 2020 is below. This complements the SlideShare illustrations available at

Please review the online resources on this blogpost before the session. 

One approach to engage with the content is to - check that you have an idea of, and can visualise what VR, AR, MR, Simulation, Virtual Simulation, Serious Games and AI in medical education are, by reviewing the links in the above section of online image search for these terms, reviewing the online videos of examples, then skimming through the review articles in the section below, having a look at the SlideShare illustrations, before reading the three takeaways, postscript and final comments of the presentation. As you do this, think about and jot down notes of your own practice and educational setting, and what application these ideas might have in your setting.

We can discuss these ideas further during the live IAMSE webinar online. 

With warmest regards, 




Thank you for participating in this online webinar at Virtual IAMSE 2020. Thank you to the IAMSE organising committee for inviting me, and the technical team at IAMSE for supporting this webinar. I encourage you to actively engage with the material by reviewing, taking notes, reflecting on your own educational practice, and thinking about how to apply some of these ideas and tips in your setting.

My presentation with be short, and focused on three takeaways. This full transcript of my presentation has internal hyperlinks to cited online resources and articles for your further review and reading. I hope that you will find these useful.

The first takeaway is summed up in the following elegant quote "All teaching, regardless of how it is delivered is basically: present content, provide practice and feedback, assess learning. Sure, there is more, but focus on that."
accessible at the following link below.

This quote reminds us that is is the learning process, and training outcome that we should be focused on as educators. The technology is there is assist us.

My second takeaway is that we should therefore focus on what the student and trainee “sees” or experiences, and “does”, illustrated in the following slides, and available on the links below

As educators we should facilitate, encourage, and promote active engagement of the student and trainee with the educational content, and a learning process, which can include taking notes, reflection, recall, discussion, use and application of the educational content - knowledge, skills and attitudes. Recall facts, answer questions, illustrate and demonstrate skills, offer online / simulated practice, use video to record and provide feedback on performance (under appropriate consent and privacy conditions), and use media, including video, and increasingly Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) to allow our learners to visualize, situate and empathise with clinical practice settings. There is early promise and potential for AR to provide "just in time" reference material and performance support; and VR to enable our students and trainees to see, hear and feel / experience clinical practice settings. Simulation and gaming paradigms offer promise and potential for safe practice with feedback. Artificial Intelligence (AI) will likely increasingly allow instructors to offer some personalisation and customisation of learning and training. Some recent case studies for the use of AR, VR, Simulation, Gaming and AI are provided in the following section.

Zweifach S, M, Triola M, M: Extended Reality in Medical Education: Driving Adoption through Provider-Centered Design. Digit Biomark 2019;3:14-21. doi: 10.1159/000498923

Pottle J. (2019). Virtual reality and the transformation of medical education. Future healthcare journal, 6(3), 181–185.

Kononowicz AA, Woodham LA, Edelbring S, Stathakarou N, Davies D, Saxena N, Tudor Car L, Carlstedt-Duke J, Car J, Zary N
Virtual Patient Simulations in Health Professions Education: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration
J Med Internet Res 2019;21(7):e14676

Sharifzdaeh, Nahid & Tabesh, Hamed & Kharrazi, Hadi & Edalati, Maryam & Heidari, Somayeh & Tara, Mahmood. (2019). Health education serious games: A scoping review (Preprint). 10.2196/preprints.13459. 

Briganti, G., & Le Moine, O. (2020). Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: Today and Tomorrow. Frontiers in medicine, 7, 27.

Chan KS, Zary N
Applications and Challenges of Implementing Artificial Intelligence in Medical Education: Integrative Review
JMIR Med Educ 2019;5(1):e13930

We have an opportunity, and challenge to expand the concept of "blended learning", from online self study combined with in person group discussions to asynchronous self study of online content blended with synchronous online group activities. The following two recent articles by Shank (2020) elaborate on this process. 

Shank, P. (2020). ‘(The right) digital modalities to deliver digital learning: Part 1’. Published on April 3, 2020. Available at: (Accessed: 22 April 2020).

Shank, P. (2020). ‘(The right) digital modalities to deliver digital learning: Part 2’. Published on April 13, 2020. Available at: (Accessed: 22 April 2020)

My third takeaway is to start off with what you are familiar with, and use what is available and at hand. Use "simple" tech - email, SMS, blogs (websites) to broadcast, and "narrowcast" .. targeted message ... connect ... disseminate ... document. This is illustrated in the following graphic (embedded text link), and elaborated further in the short article in TAPS (The Asia Pacific Scholar), and listed in three short SlideShare documents details below. The Centre of Instructional Technology Website at NUS below has detailed "how to do it" information for instructors.

Goh, P.S. eLearning in Medical Education - Costs and Value Add. The Asia Pacific Scholar (TAPS). Published online: 2 May, TAPS 2018, 3(2), 58-60. DOI:

It is likely that the rapid shift to online live large and small group teaching and meetings triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic will accelerate our application of technology to enhance and enable learning. The SlideShare post link below, and recent MedEdPublish articles elaborate on this. 

Goh P.S and Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49,

Cecilio-Fernandes D, Parisi M, Santos T, Sandars J, 2020, 'The COVID-19 pandemic and the challenge of using technology for medical education in low and middle income countries ', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 74,

Taylor D, Grant J, Hamdy H, Grant L, , et al. 2020, 'Transformation to learning from a distance', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 76,

Fawns T, Jones D, Aitken G, 2020, 'Challenging assumptions about “moving online” in response to COVID-19, and some practical advice', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 83,

Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82,

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97,

We can now have an online discussion during the interactive live Q and A segment of the webinar.

Thank you."

The transcript of the full text of my presentation for the IAMSE 2020 webinar is above. Poh-Sun


Postscript (posted on 16 April 2020 @ 0915am), for discussion - first posted online during TeLMED session on 17 April 2020 ( more on  following link )

"One simple, doable, first step for us to take as educators is to (progressively) make our teaching and training material available for review and use online, as (some open access, some restricted access) digital content (following appropriate and accepted professional usage guidelines, including those for professional use, consent, privacy, and attribution/intellectual property). This facilitates use and review by both students, and fellow educators, to use, and re-use (with attribution). This content can be progressively, and systematically curated and indexed by theme, topic, and ideally also in its most modular, granular form. To encourage, and facilitate re-use, re-purposing, and just in time review. For example - key takeaways, recent and topical papers, guidelines, quotes, illustrations, tables, video clips, modular VR and AR content. Our role as teachers, instructors, demonstrators, educators, content creators, curators, editors, filters/screeners/reviewers, guides and coaches can be assisted by AI, informed by digital and learning analytics." 
                                                                                        Poh-Sun Goh (16 April 2020 @ 0915am)

I also believe that the description of "new tech", what is useful, and important considerations presented at the closing Pecha Kucha session at AMEE 2016 (articulated in the MedEdPublish article Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12. are still valid. As cost progressively reduces, availability and usability of wearable tech for AR, VR, and Mixed Reality progressively increases, together with a deeper understanding of their appropriate use, including software and content for these "newer technologies"; and deeper understanding, wider access, and lower cost of simulation and gaming platforms and paradigms; combined with embedded, usable, and iteratively improving AI and Machine Learning; adoption and use of these technologies to complement, augment, supplement, and even replace previous more traditional methods of instruction and training will progressively increase. Technology will eventually seamlessly integrate even further into our clinical and teaching practice. Our role as educators will be to envision, plan, guide, support and oversee this process, expanding and deepening our role as teachers, instructors, content creators, curators, guides and coaches. 
                                                                     Poh-Sun Goh (23 April 2020 @ 0930am)

Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
see also 
The online address of the website/blog used to deliver the AMEE 2016 Pecha Kucha presentation on the same topic is

Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16

"Technology enhanced learning or eLearning allows educators to expand access to educational content, promotes engagement with students and makes it easier for students to access educational material at a time, place and pace which suits them. The challenge for educators beginning their eLearning journey is to decide where to start, which includes the choice of an eLearning tool and platform. This article will share one educator's decision making process, and experience using blogs as a flexible and versatile integrated eLearning tool and platform. Apart from being a cost effective/free tool and platform, blogs offer the possibility of creating a hyperlinked indexed content repository, for both created and curated educational material; as well as a distribution and engagement tool and platform. Incorporating pedagogically sound activities and educational practices into a blog promote a structured templated teaching process, which can be reproduced. Moving from undergraduate to postgraduate training, educational blogs supported by a comprehensive online case-based repository offer the possibility of training beyond competency towards proficiency and expert level performance through a process of deliberate practice. By documenting educational content and the student engagement and learning process, as well as feedback and personal reflection of educational sessions, blogs can also form the basis for a teaching portfolio, and provide evidence and data of scholarly teaching and educational scholarship. Looking into the future, having a collection of readily accessible indexed hyperlinked teaching material offers the potential to do on the spot teaching with illustrative material called up onto smart surfaces, and displayed on holographic interfaces."
above abstract from
Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

No comments:

Post a comment

Note: only a member of this blog may post a comment.