Tuesday, 12 September 2017

(Use of) Augmented Reality (AR) ... and Virtual Reality (VR) in (Medical) Education

Why use AR

Why before What ... and How
(Underpinning) Theory ... Pedagogical (foundation) ... (guiding how instructional method, technique, or technology) is Used
(Identify) Learning objective / Training intent before (search for) Tool within Toolkit / Toolbox
Easy to use
(Relatively) low cost, or value for money
What is the job to be done?
What would you "hire" AR for?

-Heads up display (car, jet)
-Road signs (both static, and dynamic - electronic / adaptive to conditions ... and in future to individual)
Signposts, Guides, Templates, Overlays
-Labels (pasted, mounted, electronic, QR codes)

Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

What is known from the literature about the pedagogy of AR

"...The findings of the scoping review illustrated a set of studies that
provide evidence of improved academic performance, increase in students’ engagement,
motivation, and satisfaction through the educational environments that are enriched with
AR applications...Studies included into this scoping review outlined several limitations regarding the use of AR applications in formal education. The majority of the studies outlined three limitations; technical thresholds, design considerations and small sample size..."
above quote from article below
Saltan, F., & Arslan, ├ľ. (2017). The Use of Augmented Reality in Formal Education: A Scoping Review. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(2), 503-520.

Augmented reality in education and training: pedagogical approaches and illustrative case studies
(first online 8 July 2017)

"...The major advantages of AR in these studies reported are learning gains and motivation. In these 55 papers, most of studies reported that AR in educational settings lead to better learning performance and promoting learning motivation, which because AR supply the authenticity graphical content and interaction. Also, deeper student engagement, improved perceived enjoyment, and positive attitudes of AR are reported as the effectiveness of using AR..."
above quote from article (conference paper) below
Chen P., Liu X., Cheng W., Huang R. (2017) A review of using Augmented Reality in Education from 2011 to 2016. In: Popescu E. et al. (eds) Innovations in Smart Learning. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. Springer, Singapore

"...This article presents both VR and AR as effective teaching tools, where student learning is as successful as with tablet-based applications, although educators should be cautious regarding the adverse effects such as blurred-vision and disorientation with VR in particular ..... A relatively large portion of students also reported “difficulty concentrating” across all three learning modes. Learning the large number of features and names of a new anatomical region all-at-once in an application may require processing demands that exceed the students' cognitive capabilities ...  ... However, both VR and AR provide additional intrinsic benefits, such as increased student engagement, interactivity and enjoyment..."
above quotes from
Moro, C., ┼átromberga, Z., Raikos, A. and Stirling, A. (2017), The effectiveness of virtual and augmented reality in health sciences and medical anatomy. American Association of Anatomists, 10: 549–559. doi:10.1002/ase.1696

"...Cognitive Information Processing Theory relates to AR apps in that the displayed information may transfer to short term memory, further usage may transfer knowledge into working memory, and mastered apps may transfer information into long term memory. Dual Coding Theory is a basis for understanding the effects of AR apps as well. Learners are presented with text and related images at the same time, which increases the cognitive mental load, which in turn increases overall learning. Social Learning Theory strongly supports the increased collaboration resulting from AR apps. Environments are based on factual, professional information. Students can model the behavior of the professionals (physicists, designers, etc.). Communities of Practice Theory suggest that AR apps should use environments and characters based on appropriate contexts. For example, in a physics based app, use people and places that physicists might realistically encounter. Other relevant, highly regarded theories of education include game-based learning theory, place-based learning, participatory simulations, problem-based learning, role playing, studio-based pedagogy, and jigsaw method theory..."
above quote from article below
Bitter, Gary. (2014). The Pedagogical Potential of Augmented Reality Apps. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention. 3. 13-17.
or http://www.ijesi.org/papers/Vol(3)10/C031013017.pdf

Bacca, J., Baldiris, S., Fabregat, R., Graf, S., & Kinshuk. (2014). Augmented Reality Trends in Education: A Systematic Review of Research and Applications. Educational Technology & Society, 17 (4), 133–149.

"...The research results showed that learners can accept AR as a learning technology, and that AR can improve the learning effect by acquisition of skills and knowledge, understanding of spatial relationships and medical concepts, enhancing learning retention and performance on cognitive psychomotor tasks, providing material in a convenient and timely manner that shortens the learning curve, giving subjective attractiveness, and simulating authentic experiences...
AR seems useful for improving healthcare education. Ninety-six percent of the papers claimed that AR is useful for improving healthcare education. Several aspects were elicited in the different studies such as decreased amount of practice needed, reduced failure rate, improved performance accuracy, accelerated learning, shortened learning curve, easier to capture learner’s attention, better understanding of spatial relationships, provided experiences with new kinds of authentic science inquiry and improved assessment of trainees...
Lack of learning theories to guide the design of AR. Of the included papers, 80% did not clearly describe which kind of learning theory was used to guide design or application of AR in healthcare education..."
above quotes from article below
Zhu, E., Hadadgar, A., Masiello, I., & Zary, N. (2014). Augmented reality in healthcare education: an integrative review. PeerJ, 2, e469. http://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.469

 "...a powerful technology combined with a strong pedagogy is a recipe for advanced teaching and learning—and the vast array of innovations and technologies available and continuing to emerge leaves the potential for endless possibilities for evolving education. However, as often understood by most educational technologists, the key is to put the horse before the cart, and understand the type of learning experiences and therefore pedagogies that are sought, following by asking the question as to what type of technology can enable that..."
https://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/Technology-Rich%20Innovative%20Learning%20Environments%20by%20Jennifer%20Groff.pdf (2013)

"... the iPhone X makes a powerful statement that augmented reality is coming ... the iPhone X may be the first to be redesigned around a specific new purpose. The more dynamic screen, the vertically stacked cameras, the tiny bezels, the faster processor—all those things work together to make the iPhone X primarily about what's on the other side. You're not supposed to look at this device, but through it."
above quote from


"...How big a business will virtual reality be -- a niche or something every kid does?
...Today VR is a $7 billion market going to roughly $25 billion by 2022. It's going to scale slightly larger for consumers than commercial buyers. We think the commercial opportunity is where we can add more value.
At Case Western University, first-year medical students are taught anatomy on VR. Or let's take Roman history. A big textbook with a little picture of an aqueduct is not exactly emotionally involving. Now you put the VR headset on and you're in the aqueduct, you're seeing the chariots go through the Coliseum. Think about the learning efficacy of that. We're actively engaged with car companies for design and demos in showrooms, theme parks, military training. The training thing is a very big deal..."
above quote from article (link) below

"...Google Lens. It's a way to use your phone's camera to search for information. For example, point your camera at that flower and Google will tell you what kind it is. Point it at a book, and you get information on the author and see reviews. Ditto with restaurants: You'll be able to see reviews and pricing information on a little digital card that appears above the building on your phone's screen ... Google is taking a different approach when it comes to AR: utility..."
above quote from article (link) below

Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

above from


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