Saturday, 6 October 2012

PhD proposal in medical education

The illustrated guide to a PhD

12 Tips for studying medical education at the doctoral level (uncorrected final version pdf)

               12 Tips for studying medical education at the doctoral level (Medical Teacher, 2009)

Doctoral programs in HPE (Medical Teacher, 2013)

        Writing a PhD Proposal (Maastricht)

        EdD (NIE)

        PhD, EdD (IOE, London)

        Fellowship in Medical Education (Chicago)

        Doctor of Education (Harvard)
Choosing the right research advisor

How to get the most out of scientific conferences

How to get all-important teaching experience

Reflections on Mastery Training in Diagnostic Radiology

1. What are the indicators of mastery? (learning objectives)

      a. literature

Brettle, Barry & Smith, 2007

Jasinski, 2004

Kundel, Nodine, Conant & Weinstein, 2007


Wood, 1999

      b. survey / interview teaching staff (open or structured) - group discussion, questionnaire 
            i. open ended question (what are the indicators you would use to assess mastery?
                     list 3 or 5 indicators you would use to assess mastery?)
            ii. rank these in order of usefulness / impact
            iii. why did you select these indicators? (open ended discussion)

            iv. some examples - knowledge base, years of experience, ability to recognize unusual 
                      presentations, accuracy, completeness, speed, efficiency of search strategy,    
                      effectiveness, confidence, error rates

2. How could this be assessed? (for each area / topic)

     a. with plain film cases
            i. how many are required?
            ii. what spectrum of cases / complexity of cases is required?

     b. with cross sectional imaging
            i. accurate selection of key images
            ii. accurate description of key features on these key images
            iii. speed and confidence in screening all images and identifying key images

3. How can we train for mastery?

      a. role of "deliberate practice" (systematic case review, increasing complexity, with expert
          guidance / feedback)

      b. role of background reading / reflection on day to day clinical experience ("ad hoc" 
          case review)

4. What is the role of "key images"?

Reiner & Siegel, 2006

Gaillard, 2010

Dang et. al., 2009

5. What is the role of case repositories?

a. literature

Scarsbrook, Foley, Perriss & Graham, 2005

Yang & Lim, 2006

b. use in the continuum of training 

            i. undergraduate - exemplar case
            ii. residency and fellowship - mastery training
            iii. CPD

How radiology experts think - and value of online case repositories 

1. expertise in radiology is directly correlated with experience

2. case experience should be cumulative

3. case experience should include the full spectrum of the presentation of any given diagnosis

4. case experience should include material of increasing complexity

5. increasing complexity involves the review of cases showing typical, then less typical, less easily detectable features, with less associated features, or more confounding associated features, or more than one pathology, and progressively less or contradictory additional information

6. the radiology task is a simple three step process - see, recognize, diagnose

7. this requires perceptual learning or pattern recognition, categorical learning or the ability to list key features, and diagnostic reasoning or the ability to correlate with the clinical setting

8. experts use rapid holistic perception linked to experience, which are mental schemas or representations of the key features of a wide range of pathology

9. experts use rapid 200msec big picture perception to generate the most likely hypothesis, which then drives the deliberate search for key features

10. experts rapidly decide on whether a radiograph or scan is normal, or has a likely abnormality, and then use visual search and reasoning to confirm the diagnosis

11. online case repositories can accelerate the development of expertise, by widening the case experience of radiologists, beyond that of individual day to day direct experience, efficiently and effectively

12. the key is to use case material in a deliberate way (deliberate practice)

Cognitive apprenticeship

1. Developing into an expert radiologist involves mastering a set of complex task skills.

2. This includes "running the service" - prescribing the optimal imaging technique to address the clinical problem, protocolling the study, modifying the study "in real time" to take into account (unexpected) findings during the radiological examination, and interacting with technical and clinical staff to both optimize the examination, and convey the relevant radiological information that will facilitate clinical management of the patient.

3. The cognitive aspects of making a radiological diagnosis involve the "see, recognize, and diagnose" three step process described above.

4. The role of the trainee resident or fellow in radiology requires a combination of focus, application, sustained effort, and dedication to learn; coupled with a high level of professional responsibility and commitment to learning and practicing the craft of radiology.

5. Ultimately, learning requires active application of effort - learning by doing, with feedback on performance. Passive observation does not lead to true learning or the functional ability to perform in better ways. A combination of reflection, and repeated attempts to apply knowledge and skills is required to "learn" anything. This is an active process. Increasing expertise is acquired by "deliberate practice" 

6. The role of the instructor in radiology is to "coach", guide and facilitate this learning process in a positive way.

7. An example of a systematic positive coaching paradigm comes from coaching in sports, where the players or learners are reminded that they have total control over three aspects of performance - effort, learning from experience, and response to mistakes - ELM framework

8. A useful way of thinking about the trainee - instructor interaction is to reflect on the idea of "cognitive apprenticeship" 

Friday, 5 October 2012

Workshops / Symposia / Invited Presentations / Educational Activities

Moderator and panelist: A Roundtable Discussion on Technology Enhanced Learning. 11th Asia Pacific Medical Education Conference - Saturday, 18 January 2014; Symposium 7 from 1415hrs to 1545hrs

A round table discussion between a panel of health professions educators with interactive audience participation.

This will include sharing of key take home messages illustrated by examples or short practice narratives of the use of Technology Enhanced Learning in various educational settings.

We anticipate a highly interactive session augmented by online discussions.


         Goh Poh Sun
         Marcus Henning
         Sanjay Khanna
         Junji Otaki
         Kenneth Pinto
         Gominda Ponnamperuma

TEL Roundtable @ 11th APMEC 2014

Singapore International Foundation/Temasek Foundation/MEU Workshop for Health Professions Educators on Technology Enhanced Learning, Colombo, Sri Lanka; Friday, December 13, 2013


Using the flipped classroom model in medical education: 12noon to 2pm, Symposium rooms 2 & 3, Clinical Research Centre (CRC), Block MD 11, 10 Medical Drive, YLL SOM, NUS on Dec 10, 2013.

In addition to the examples below, 

M1 (NUS undergraduate medicine chest anatomy radiology correlation)

M2 (NUS undergraduate medicine chest pathology radiology correlation)

M3 (NUS undergraduate surgery radiology case based discussion)

Upper abdominal masses on AXR

Nephrology (NUHS postgraduate medicine nephrology radiology case discussions)


3 take home points 

1. focus on your teaching and learning objectives, not the technology ... (e)Learning (small "e", big "L"... focus on the Learning) ... focus on understanding learning needs, curricula design, scaffolding, learner support and customised learning, assessment with feedback and evaluate what you are doing ... document and make transparent your process


2. use "simple" tech - email, SMS, blogs (websites) to broadcast, and "narrowcast" .. targeted message ... connect ... disseminate ... document

3. keep refining your teaching techniques, and improving as an educator  (Glassick's criteria - clear goals, adequate preparation, appropriate methods, significant results, effective presentation, AND reflective critique ..... Glassick, C.E., Huber, M.R. & Maeroff, G.I. (1997). Scholarship Assessed - Evaluation of the Professiorate. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass).




Watch above (own time), then come to live session, discuss, practice and apply!


                                      Technology matters, but teachers matter most of all (Heng Swee Keat)









Invited chairperson and judge: Singapore Health and Biomedical Congress (SHBC) 2013 Scientific Competition Best Poster Award Session - Health Professions Education, Finalist judging session/presentations - 11 September, 2014; main conference - 27 and 28 September, 2014; Singapore Expo

Invited presentation: Train the Trainers session for National Healthcare Group Polyclinics' Family Physicians/Key Trainers – 6 June 2013. Topic: Training the new generation: “A Guide by the Side and Not a Sage on the Stage”. Goh Poh Sun

MEU workshop - May 20, 2013, Teaching for effective learning - eLearning. Goh Poh Sun

Invited lecture, O and G department, NUH - March 25, 2013, Teaching for effective learning - eLearning. Goh Poh Sun

APMEC 2013 workshop – Jan 16, 2013: eLearning in medical education : from educational theory to practice  –  Goh Poh Sun, Rajendran Kanagasuntheram, Lynette Teo


eLearning offers great potential to medical educators by leveraging on the capability of the internet and mobile devices to overcome barriers of distance, time, and constraints on face to face teaching, by offering educational resources to both a wide audience, and also personalized instruction on demand. eLearning also offers an opportunity to engage a new generation of learners; and facilitates teaching across the continuum of  undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education/continuing professional development (CPD). This workshop will explore the educational theory relevant to the practice of eLearning and mobile learning, and offer practical tips and case studies in preclinical, clinical and continuing medical education settings. The areas to be covered will include 
1.     educational theory relevant to the practice of eLearning
2.     web based and mobile learning and assessment
3.     undergraduate, postgraduate and CPD continuum
4.     case studies from pre-clinical, clinical and postgraduate education
5.     practical tips for integrating eLearning and eAssessment into the curriculum

Department Journal Club - Dec 6, 2012, "Mastery Training in Diagnostic Radiology"

This presentation was designed for both radiology trainees and radiology instructors. The areas covered included - indicators of mastery; how mastery can be assessed; how can we train for mastery; the role of key images; and the role of case repositories.

MEU workshop - Nov 2, 2012, Teaching for effective learning - eLearning. Goh Poh Sun

Primary Care Forum 2012, Singapore Health and Biomedical Congress 2012 – Sep 29, 2012, Presentation: Social Media in Medical Education : The New Kid on The Block? Goh Poh Sun

Abstract: Social media leverages on the internet as a means of communication, sharing, and collaboration; improves engagement and encourages participation in the creation of user generated content. This presentation will explore the key characteristics of social media, and explore how medical educators can potentially use social media in undergraduate education, postgraduate training, and continuiing professional development.

AMEE 2012 symposium - Aug 29, 2012, eLearning for the learner: The challenge for providing learner centred education in the Age of the Internet. John Sanders, Gareth Frith, Natalie Lafferty, Goh Poh Sun

5 day MEU training program for College of Health Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (for  faculty members from Medicine, Nursing, Dentistry, Applied Medical Science, Pharmacy and Critical Medicine) – June 19, 2012 – topics, “Aligning Teaching-Learning (T-L) Strategies to Course Outcomes: Selection, Efficiency and Impact”  and “e-Learning to Enhance Student Learning”

MEU workshop - May 29, 2012, Teaching for effective learning - eLearning. Goh Poh Sun

APMEC 2012 workshop - Jan 12, 2012, Outcomes based course design: A pedagogical approach to formulating and writing learning outcomes. Matthew CE Gwee, Dujeepa D Samarasekera, Tan Chay Hoon, Goh Poh Sun

Symposium on Innovation in Medical Education, Primary Care Forum 2011, Singapore Health and Biomedical Congress 2011 – Nov 12, 2011, Presentation: Creative Ways to Teach Gen-Y Medical Students Using Technology

MEU workshop – July 19, 2011, Teaching for effective learning – eLearning (whole day workshop) – designed and led program in workshop

MEU workshop - May 4 - 5, 2011, Curriculum Design, Evaluation and Quality Assurance - Presentation: Use of Technology in Medical/Healthcare Professional Education

8th AsiaPacific Medical Education Conference, Jan 28, 2011 – Symposium: What is the role of technology in the continuum of medical education, Sharing experience and practical tips on using technology to support and augment undergraduate and postgraduate medical education.

Upcoming Workshops / Symposia

Learning@NUHS implementation meeting on:
Date: Wednesday, 12 February
Time: 1 – 2 pm
Venue: T07-06    

At an institutional level (Learning@NUHS project)

Learning@NUHS and CaseBasedLearning@NUHS (internet demo site)

http://nuhweb/ma/Education/curricula.html  (intranet site with expanded content)

and original pilot project website

And departmental/individual teacher level (CasedBasedLearning@NUHS project)


MEU workshop - Teaching and Learning Strategies for Healthcare Professionals in the New Millennium; short case study presentation and discussion of lessons learned from planning, and participating in Symposium 7 (Technology enhanced learning), presented at the 11th APMEC (see website below).

NUS - PRIME (Priority Research in Medical Education) session - 5 May, 2014

The topic will be on Technology Enhanced Learning, illustrated by 3 case studies.

At a regional/international conference setting (TEL@APMEC2014)

At an institutional level (Learning@NUHS project)

http://nuhweb/ma/Education/curricula.html  (intranet site with expanded content)

and original pilot project website

And departmental/individual teacher level (CasedBasedLearning@NUHS project)

MEU workshop - 6 May, 2014, Use of videos in medical education (half day); Course Faculty



MEU workshop - 23 July, 2014, eLearning (whole day); Course Faculty

MEU workshop - 24 July, 2014, Qualitative research methods in medical education (whole day); Course Faculty

AMEE 2014 Symposium: 30 Aug to 3 Sep 2014, Milan

Creating effective learning with new technology in the 21st century: the importance of educational theories

John Sandars, Leeds Institute of Medical Education, University of Leeds, UK
Goh Poh Sun, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore
Natalie Lafferty, University of Dundee, UK
Patricia Kokotailo, University of  Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, USA
Rakesh Patel, University of Leicester, UK


There is an increasing variety of new technology available to the medical educator in the 21st century, from social media (such as Twitter and You Tube) to knowledge repositories and simulations to Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). The challenge for all medical educators is how to create meaningful and effective learning in this rapidly evolving world that often appears to only focus on the novelty of the latest technology.

This symposium will offer participants a range of established and newer educational theories, from multimedia design and deliberate practice to ecology of learning and connectivism, and illustrate how these theories can critically  inform  the use of technology to create effective personal and collaborative learning. Participants will have the opportunity to consider the extent to which they currently use theory to create learning opportunities and to explore how they can produce innovative learning by the use of newer theories.

                                                                      AMEE 2014