Wednesday, 23 April 2014

Advice and Collaboration in TEL (Technology Enhanced Learning) Projects, Initiatives and Programs



            Dr Peng Li Lee (NUHS EMD)

                    Emergency Medicine eLearning module (screenshot from Learning@NUHS website)

            Dr Chew Su Yah (NUHS Paediatrics/EMD)

                     eLearning - How to start

            Dr Lincoln Tan (NUHS Urology)

                     Technology Enhanced Learning - Some key points

"As a reflection point; this discussion process we are engaged in is an example of "blending learning"; mixing online/technology mediated sharing and discussion (via email) with face to face discussion.

And the email containing hyperlinks and shared resources is an example of an "eLearning" webpage.

In fact email contains elements of "social media" by promoting and documenting discussions either one on one, or between small or large groups of people. This is how the "internet" first started. To promote discussion amongst researchers." or
Brief history of the internet

Origins of the internet (Rand Corporation)

Tomorrow's Professor Index

       Dr Raghuraj Hegde (NUHS Ophthalmology Fellow) and Dr Gangadhara Sundar (NUHS Ophthalmology Senior Consultant and Head, Orbit and Oculofacial Division)

1. Basal Cell Carcinoma- Vincent Tan
2. Optic nerve Sheath Meningioma- Yew Sen
3. Orbital Granuloma- Raghuraj Hegde

1. Bilateral Lymphoma- Raghuraj Hegde
2. Globe rupture with Wegener's- Merwyn Chew
3. Multiple orbital reconstructions- Yew Sen

1. Intranasal and orbital Osteoma- Viktor Koh
2. Mucinous Carcinoma- Raghuraj Hegde
3. Follicular Lyphoma of conjunctiva- David Hernstadt and Michelle Poon

1. Multiple recurrent cavernous hemangiomas of orbit and paranasal sinuses- Janice Lam
2. Orbital Venolymphatic lesions- Radiological Review Raghuraj Hegde/ Yew Sen

            Dr Rashid AL Umairi (NUHS Neuroradiology Fellow)

                            Topic reviews to date:

                                    Right MCA infarction
                                    Internal carotid artery permanent
                                    Demyelinating diseases

                                    Approach to sella and parasellar masses
                                    Nasopharangeal carcinoma  
                                    Temporal bone anatomy and pathology 1
                                    Temporal bone anatomy and pathology 2
                                    Temporal bone anatomy and pathology 3
                                    Temporal bone anatomy and pathology 4
                                    Extra-axial brain lesions
                                    Larngeal carcinoma

                                    Viva cases

                                    Ischemic hypoxic encephalopathy
                                    Imaging of the oral cavity part 1
                                    Imaging oral cavity part 2
                                    Orbital imaging part1
                                    Imaging of the orbit part 2
                                    Imaging of the orbit part 3

                                    Central Nervous System Infection part 1
                                    Central Nervous System Infection part2

                                    Paranasal sinuses part 1



Singapore International Foundation Temasek Foundation and MEU 3 Year Project with Sri Lankan MOH (2013 to 2016)


       Ophthalmology (Dr Zaid Mommo, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Canada)

Monday, 21 April 2014

TLHE 2014 - December 9 to 11, 2014 @ CDTL and Shaw Foundation Alumni House, NUS

Conference theme

Innovation in educational approaches: theory, practice and research

"Focus on the ways in which theoretical positions and empirical findings on innovation can inform daily classroom practice, curriculum design, assessment, and other key aspects of education. At the same time, the conference invites contributions that aim to explore and share innovative educational approaches in order to enhance teaching and learning."

Using a Digital Knowledge Repository to Personalise Learning in Medical Education: A Follow-up Report to TeL2013

Poh-Sun Goh

Educational setting(s) or Introduction

"Good afternoon. Thank you to the organising committee for giving me an opportunity to present some of the work we are doing over at the YLLSoM, and National University Hospital. This is work that I am both very excited, and passionate about; which is the use of technology as a tool, platform and enabler to support, and augment customised (and personal) teaching and learning, with educational principles as the foundation, and a scholarly ethos (guiding belief) and scholarship intent as an overarching theme.

I hope to not only make a presentation, but also a demonstration, of the Use of a Digital Knowledge Repository to Personalise Medical Education, along the continuum of education (from undergraduate, through postgraduate, to lifelong learning settings; using several case studies from Radiology, as well as Medical Education Faculty development workshops and symposia, many on the topic of technology enhanced learning).

Educational challenge(s)

A constant challenge we face as educators is providing a consistent educational experience, as well as the need to customise our educational offerings. Learning occurs in formal, performance support, and informal settings. Formal learning occurs both in the classroom (both large and small group/one on one), and online/mobile learning settings. Performance support may be face to face (asking someone close by for help or assistance) or by looking up a paper based or online reference source. Informal learning can take place in both physical, and online platforms.

Our students face the big challenge of finding and allocating time to learn, time to reflect and think. Packed curricular schedules leave little time and space for metacognition. Learning requires focused attention, and attendance. To be present. Both mentally, and physically. Social and professional schedules may make physical class attendance difficult. Learning preferences can make off-site educational content review, consumption, and active learning more appealing.

Another big challenge we face as educators is finding enough time to teach, as well as create educational material (design, build, create and curate). Educational administrators and program directors constantly face the challenge of finding enough teachers and instructors, training them (faculty development), and ensuring "quality teaching". This requires both high quality content, and a pedagogically sound delivery process, which promotes active, collaborative learning in our students and professional trainees.

I truly and deeply believe that an online knowledge repository, that contains what we actually teach with, and what we assess on, is the solution to these challenges.

Ultimately, any assertion of the high quality of a teaching program will be met with a simple question. Show me what you actually teach with, and assess on. Let me see it, and experience it. Or taste it, to use a food analogy.

Theory (What might work?) or Background

As educators, what should drive us is a constant focus on how to facilitate and improve learning. Small "e", big "L" in eLearning. We know from the literature that active engagement, and collaborative student activities promotes learning.

In the undergraduate setting, we know that basic theory needs to be introduced. With the challenge of illustrating and showing students how to apply this theory. With case studies, and practical scenarios.
Transfer and the ability to apply theory is the educational challenge and objective.

In the postgraduate setting, the mastery training and deliberate practice literature informs us that training of novices for competency, proficiency, expertise and mastery (the Dreyfus model) requires repeated, spaced, drill and practice sessions, with a wide range of real life scenarios and problems, of increasing complexity and ambiguity, and with increasing confounding variables, supported by feedback. We are not only guides, but also coaches.

Translation (How might we apply this?) or Methods

Lets take the opening lecture yesterday as an example. After opening statements and some background theory and principles were shared, we were then asked to recall examples of good practice. And we were then given time, during the presentation, repeatedly, to personally select from, and read from a wide selection of case studies; and after each in-session reading period, most importantly, share what key practice point made a strong impression on us, with a colleague next to us (two way), followed by whole group sharing. In effect, we witnessed an example of a large group "lecture" presented "workshop-style".

We have presented large group undergraduate lectures using this format, with online websites, digital Padlet walls, eLectures with within video segmented tabs, and iBooks as tools to deliver content, provide students personal choice on what and how to consume this content, including the ability to pause, and replay material, as well as in class time, and space to discuss the material both amongst themselves, and with the instructor. The ingredients for these presentations comes from a digital repository, making the construction of new lectures much less time consuming. Effort is now focused on customising material for an audience, and refining material, rather than creating material, or hunting for reference or illustrative material.

For postgraduate radiology training, we have been using a repository of several thousand cases to supplement, and augment day to day clinical experience. This ensures that professional trainees get to see, and practice with, the full spectrum of clinical case scenarios.

Outcome(s) (How well does it work in practice? Does it work? How do we know? How can we systematically evaluate this? How can we improve?) or Results

I now teach exclusively from online blogs or websites, supplemented by digital Padlet walls to promote interaction, and to provide a visual overview of content, which can be moved around and added to in real time.

I spend much less time presenting, and much more time interacting with students and professional trainees.

The teaching content, and educational process is very public, and available for peer review, and critique. This improves both the content and the teaching process.

Documentation of the content and educational process makes educational scholarship much easier. The use of Data Analytics makes the analysis of content usage transparent and visible - what is consumed, when, how, to what degree (I use "free" Google and Slideshare Analytics, coupled with free online resources - Google Blogger and Padlet platforms). This gives insight into the learning process, and supplements information we get as teachers from direct observation, Q and A, both formative and summative.

Discussion and reflection

I hope this presentation, and demonstration, has illustrated why I am so passionate about the use of technology to enhance teaching, and facilitate the learning process. Digital repositories provide easy access to educational content. What we actually teach with, and assess on. Allows us to disseminate, and share. Online and mobile platforms like blogs and digital walls facilitates the delivery of this content. And promotes interaction. Data analytics supplements personal observation, surveys, and student interviews. These insights add to our understanding of how students learn. And suggest how we might teach better.

Can this be done? How feasible is this? Yes. and Yes.

What does this require? Some initial training, experimentation, and lots of work. But this is front loaded. Initial effort is greater. But when done prospectively, on a regular basis, subsequent effort is much less. It now takes me one to two hours to put a new program or presentation together. Rather than 8 to 10 hours. More time can be spent customising, editing and refining; rather than producing content from scratch, or sourcing for additional material.

It is much easier to do a live cooking demonstration when all the ingredients have been laid out in front of you. Very similar to having access to an online digital knowledge repository, which contains not only the completed presentations, but also the individual digital elements of what we teach with, and assess on.

Now imagine if all educators did this. And shared material with each other. In an easily accessible way. That we have access to all the ingredients in the grocery store. And all the recipes that we, and other educators use. As well as a frozen food/TV meal section for emergencies!

Imagine also that we have a data analytics tracking process embedded in the repository and delivery, student engagement platform. We now know what is popular, what is useful, have a platform for obtaining real-time or near real-time feedback, we can observe usage, utility, how content is consumed, downloaded and used, whether content is recommended to others, "cited". This adds to our traditional measures of educational impact, the pre-test, and post-test. As well as assessments of how learning is applied in the workplace. Recall the formal, just in time performance support and informal learning settings. Learning something also includes recalling where high quality reference content and guides may be accessed. In an online repository. We can track and measure this. What is constantly, and repeatedly used, recommended, and referred to, must be useful. It has impact!

Thank you.

(first draft written from 0330hrs to 0430hrs, with editing completed 0527hrs, both on Dec 11, 2014)

Google Analytics login

Extended abstract (Slideshare document)

Cognitive load theory: Implications for medical education (Medical Teacher, May 2014 - see section CLT, clinical reasoning and the development of medical expertise within article)

Cognitive load theory in health professional education: design principles and strategies

Medical Education - Medical Journal of Australia 2012 (see section on deliberate practice, pdf)

Centre for Medical Education YLLSoM



NUS UG4 Combined Teaching Session - Thursday, Aug 28th, 2014 @ LT 28, NUS, 0900 to 1300hrs

Saturday, 19 April 2014

TEL symposium @ AMEE 2014; Monday, September 1, 2014


                                                        (presentation sides)

                                            follow up article in Medical Teacher

John Sandars – JS - chair
Pat Kokatailo -  PK
Goh Poh Sun - GPS
Natalie Lafferty – NL
Rakesh Patel – RP

10 mins Introduction JS
Need for underpinning of educational processes  to maximise impact of technology for teaching and learning
Variety of  ways that people learn  - constructivist: individual and social
Variety of technologies – affordances
Complex mix learn/technology
Introduction of speakers

10 mins What type of learner do I want?   PK
Philosophical  stance
Dewey – Inquiry approach
Dewey – Importance of tutor

10 mins Designing effective individual learning – GPS
Multimedia learning theories – cognitive overload / external and internal scaffolding/sequencing
Practical examples

Google search "multimedia learning theories Richard Meyer"

(see Chapter 3: Cognitive Theories of Multimedia Learning, by Richard E. Meyer, in The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, 2005)

Cognitive load theory: implications for medical education (AMEE Guide No.86)

                        "Educational wall" on theme "Cerebral infarcts and mimics" (screenshot above)




                            NUS-Prime: Technology enhanced learning - three case studies

10 mins Designing effective social learning – NL
Social learning – Communities of practice , Connectivism, Network theories
Practical examples

10 mins Emergent theories for effective learning –RP
Web 2.0 approaches – learner generated and complexity
Practical examples

[ 9 30]  Discussion

[1000] 15  mins Summary and conclusion JS


Tuesday, 15 April 2014

(e)Learning and (m)Learning (or mobile learning) "digital first" and "blended learning" strategy

Content + Platform + Audience / Value Add

Digital First, with Blending Learning, and "Flipping Classroom" mindset

>5000 online (indexed) teaching cases

eg. Hyperlinked radiology clinical case teaching and learning repositories (collectively > 150,000 page views)

> 5000 hyperlinked (indexed) curated teaching resources

Online digital and mobile platform

eg. Learning Neuroradiology Blog,  CaseBasedLearning@NUHS,  Learning@NUHS

Upcoming eBooks and mBooks (interactive)

        Digital, customised/personalised/unique learning document/deliberate practice and mastery training                      experience

Online and mobile audience - local, regional and international

Embedded content development and curation processes, supported by educational theory, literature and evidence

Face to face individual, small group and large group interactive presentations, symposia and workshops

eg. Workshops, Symposia and Invited PresentationsTelRoundtable2014@11thAPMEC

Invitations to participate; faculty development; consult and collaborate, and quality of the output (example)

eg. AMEE eLearning committee or AMEE eLearning committee screenshotSIF / Temasek Foundation / MEU collaboration with MOH Sri LankaTEL projects (local and international)

Peer reviewed conference papers

eg.    or    Building an online repository of teaching resources to facilitate consistent and good quality teaching of postgraduates and undergraduates in medicine – a preliminary report    from    Technology enhanced learning TEL 2013 symposium by CDTL, NUS

Online and mobile interactive learning platforms

Blended learning approach

Mastery training and deliberate practice ethos

Evaluating Teaching - Quantity and Quality (Methods and Examples)

Kirkpatrick 4 levels of evaluation (Google images)

Digital convergence erodes boundaries (Forbes)

The internet of everything 2014 slidedeck Business Insider)

table for discussion (Apr 27, 2014 version)

Design thinking (IDEO)

Live prototyping

How to make good TV for the web according to Amazon

Monday, 14 April 2014

Building an Online Course (Example in Orbital Imaging)

Edited online conversation and discussion between

Dr Zaid Mommo,
Resident, PGY-2
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
University of British Columbia


Dr Goh Poh Sun
MB,BS(Melb), FRCR(UK), FAMS(Singapore), MHPE(Maastricht)
Associate Professor and Senior Consultant,
Department of Diagnostic Radiology,
National University Hospital
National University Health System,

Topic: Building an Online Course in Orbital Imaging

Tips and suggestions

1. Think about your learning objectives, and draw up a draft curriculum (draft curriculum outline below from Dr Mommo, April 14, 2014)

2. Review some basic ideas about eLearning

eLearning - how to start

3. Have a look at some available online resources, while reflecting on what you might want to create for your own program, and what content you will curate

“Knowing where things are is (can be) worth more than the things themselves.” Seth Godin

Review of orbital imaging (Eur Rad, 2008)

Imaging of neuroopthalmic and orbital disease: a review (Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2009)

Orbital trauma

Imaging proptosis

Radiological evaluation of orbital masses

Imaging of the orbit

Pictorial review of extraconal and osseous orbital pathology (ECR 2013 poster)

Orbits, vision and visual loss (AJNR, 2010)

Orbital vascular lesions

Review of paediatric orbital and ocular tumours

4. Start developing a hyperlinked index of resources (tips and suggestions added by Dr Goh, April 23rd, 2014)

Intentionally, and regularly keep a list of online resources that you stumble upon, are recommended to review, or have found during a targeted or systematic search process.

Keep this list as a series of hyperlinks (highlight + right click + save as + then paste) onto an offline document or online thematic blog.

At the time you paste the link, rename the link using a key word, key phase or title that makes sense to you. Do not worry about "proper curatorial" terms at this stage. You can rename, shorten or lengthen what the link reads as (while keeping the underlying URL) as many times as you wish.

Regularly review, reorder, and reorganise your hyperlinks.

Very soon you will have a usable collection of curated online resources which you can refer to, cite, recommend, and incorporate into your teaching and learning programs.

ACTION > As an exercise, reorganise, recategorize and rename the hyperlinked resources under Point 3 above; and email your webpage/blog to me.

For material you produce yourself, very often word or powerpoint documents, you can convert these to pdf format, then share these via Slideshare (upload followed by keeping copy of hyperlink to document or presentation). You could also convert each slide on a Powerpoint document into an image, then upload each slide/image onto a blog. The advantage of this is that not only the whole presentation has its own URL, but each slide has its individual ULR, which you can individually hyperlink and index (see example from an undergraduate lecture below).


Building an online repository of teaching resources to facilitate consistent and good quality teaching of postgraduates and undergraduates in medicine – a preliminary report

ACTION > As an exercise, upload or convert/post one of your documents or presentations; and email your webpage/document link to me.

5. Assess learning and Evaluate Teaching

(e)Assessment and Evaluation

Evaluating teaching: Quantity and Quality, Impact

(e)Scholarship or Digital Scholarship and Traditional vs Digital Scholarship

Saturday, 12 April 2014

(e)Learning - How to Start

An overview of eLearning (Slideshare)

(e)Learning; digital repositories; and digital scholarship (Slideshare)

Workshop on Technology Enhanced Learning (held in Sri Lanka, 13 December, 2013; as part of Singapore International Foundation program)

          Technology enhanced learning - some key points

Flipped classrooms - Old or new?

12 tips for using social media as a medical educator (abstract)

12 tips for using social media as a medical educator (pdf)

Why social media is not a waste of time (Anne Marie Cunningham)

Social media summit in health professional education (ICRE, 22 October 2014)

Future of education 2014 (conference proceedings)

See article "Real and virtual classroom" by Darren Hanson, visiting associate professor in the Department of Management and Organisation at NUS Business School, written for school's Think Business portal (see below), and featured in The Business Times, Tuesday, May 13, 2014 issue

Human Brain Project @ the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne

"Create or curate (digital) content, index and hyperlink, intentionally and systematically share, underpin this with an educational philosophy and pedagogic foundation, as a digital professional, with an overarching scholarly ethos."

"Know what you want to do, know why you are doing it, know what you are doing, and do it (initially start slowly, with care and circumspection, observe and consume first, learn about and get some training, dip your toe into the water before taking the plunge). Get feedback, keep improving and refining, engage with the learning process (see 12 tips article above).

Poh-Sun Goh

Dr Goh Poh Sun
MB,BS(Melb), FRCR(UK), FAMS(Singapore), MHPE(Maastricht)
Associate Professor and Senior Consultant,
Department of Diagnostic Radiology,
National University Hospital
National University Health System,

email -

LinkedIn -

Slideshare educational presentations and papers -

Friday, 11 April 2014

(e)Assessment and Evaluation

What works and what doesn't: Evaluation beyond Kirkpatrick (Kaufman, Keller & Watkins, 1995)

Beyond Kirkpatrick: An evaluation dilemma (Richmond, 1998)

Enhancing learning through evaluation: Approaches, dilemmas, and some possible ways forward (Carlsson & Engel, 2002)

The Best of Training and Development: Measuring and Evaluating Learning (pdf)

Kirkpatrick revisited (2011)

Joint Committee on Surgical Training ISCP Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Program Report 2012

Research into effective evaluation techniques for training and learning programs

Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation in Education (pdf)

Developing competency-based assessment plans (Workforce Development Agency, Singapore) (pdf)

What is a competency? and What is competency based assessment? (US Office of Personnel Management)

Competency based training and assessment (State Government of Victoria, Australia)

Transforming exams - Dr Matthew Hillier (University of Queensland) pdf

Dr Matthew Hillier

A framework for the professional development of postgraduate medical supervisors

Guidelines for dental educators - a framework for developing standards for dental educators

Review of quality education in higher education

Quality assurance in higher education

Understanding assessment (UK)

National policy framework for teacher education in South Africa

Teacher education India

Teacher education Pakistan

Sunday, 6 April 2014

Use of Videos in Medical Eduation

Thank you for registering for the workshop. 


1. Please review the following webpage: 

Some of the material on the website covers: A) examples of video use in medical education, B) why use videos, C) how to effectively use videos 

2. Based on your own experience or interest in using/producing videos, please write down questions related to these or other topics you would like addressed.

3. If you are interested in converting lectures on Powerpoint to video, please please go to the site below and review "Online Authoring Tools" section: 

During the workshop, we will:

4. Work in small groups, to discuss questions raised in Point 2 above.  

In the general whole group presentation and discussion followed by Q and A, a list related to these 3 areas will be elaborated upon.

5. Review your list with the 12 tips presented. - (Theories & principles will be discussed) 

6. How to design video scenarios? - Group work with facilitation

Workshop schedule

1pm, Review the pre-workshop information
-              Examples of videos use in medical education
-             Why use videos
-             How to effectively use videos in medical education

1:30pm, Tips of effective video use in medical education
-               Why use videos (Theories)
-                How to effectively use videos in medical education (Principles)

3:30pm, Break

4:00pm, How to design video scenarios for medical education
-                Apply the 12 tips & use of technology
-                Group work with facilitation

5:15pm, Q & A

5:30PM, End





Cognitive load theory: Implications for medical education  (AMEE guide 86: in May 2014 issue of Medical Teacher)

Examples of video use in medical education  - online format

Opening points

Building an online course (ophthalmology example)

Video example (excerpt, case presentations, thoracic oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre)


12 tips of video uses in medical education 

How to start





Coffee Break 

Design video scenarios for medical education: 

(1) Instructional design model

(2) Demonstration of Adobe Presenter to capture & edit videos  - online format

Q & A  

Online demo - comparison of video capturing & editing software, i.e., Windows Movie Maker, Adobe Presenter, Camtasia, iMovie, Final Cut Pro

What is multimedia?

What is digital storytelling?


         Educational uses of digital storytelling

         Different models
              Pictures + audio narration + background music
              Video + narration
              Slides + narration + webcam
How to?




         Using movie maker

         Convert Powerpoint to images

emodules for students (CDTL, NUS)

CDTL Link  (Jul/Aug 2009)

Using blogs to support learning  (CDTL, 2009)