Sunday, 15 July 2018

50th JSME











https://learningneuroradiology.blogspot.sg/2018/02/radiology-resident-tutorial-february_22.html







Reflect on the well know aphorism "You see what you look foryou look for what you know"


"Understanding basic theory using a few illustrative examples. Mastering a topic by exposure to and experience with many examples

Typical examples or real-life scenarios can be used to illustrate theory, and help students understand fundamental principles. Mastering a topic usually requires exposure to and experience with many examples, both typical and atypical, common to uncommon including subtle manifestations of a phenomenon. The traditional method of doing this is via a long apprenticeship, or many years of practice with feedback and experience. A digital collection of educational scenarios and cases can support and potentially shorten this educational and training process. Particularly if a systematic attempt is made to collect and curate a comprehensive collection of all possible educational scenarios and case-based examples, across the whole spectrum of professional practice. Online access to key elements, parts of and whole sections of these learning cases; used by students with guidance by instructors under a deliberate practice and mastery training framework, can potentially accelerate the educational process, and deepen learning."

above from

Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.  http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000105




What is the message from the "yellow curve" below?


https://learningneuroradiology.blogspot.sg/2018/02/radiology-resident-tutorial-february_11.html



see also


https://learningneuroradiology.blogspot.sg/2018/02/radiology-resident-tutorial-february.html

"How could one use this material to dramatically reduce case review time? 
Reduce study time?

Reduce residency duration?
Use training time in other ways?"

"How would you use this material to develop confidence and familiarity with less common conditions? 
Given that time is limited."

"How do you stay sharp, not rusty, get better (sharper)."

[Practice. With feedback. With reflection. With increasing difficulty. Systematically. Regularly. With material that is at hand. At your finger tips.]
        -Poh Sun (posted on 7 February 2018 @ 0358am)












or


and earlier


This article investigates the relation between mind wandering and the spacing effect in inductive learning. Participants studied works of art by different artists grouped in blocks, where works by a particular artist were either presented all together successively (the massed condition), or interleaved with the works of other artists (the spaced condition). The works of 24 artists were shown, with 12, 15, or 18 works by each artist being provided as exemplars. Later, different works by the same artists were presented for a test of the artists' identity. During the course of studying these works, participants were probed for mind wandering. It was found that people mind wandered more when the exemplars were presented in a massed rather than in a spaced manner, especially as the task progressed. There was little mind wandering and little difference between massed and spaced conditions toward the beginning of study. People were better able to correctly attribute the new works to the appropriate artist (inductive learning) when (a) they were in the spaced condition and (b) they had not been mind wandering. This research suggests that inductive learning may be influenced by mind wandering and that the impairment in learning with massed practice (compared to spaced practice) may be attributable, at least in part, to attentional factors-people are "on task" less fully when the stimuli are massed rather than spaced.
above abstract from


Inductive learning -- that is, learning a new concept or category by observing exemplars -- happens constantly, for example, when a baby learns a new word or a doctor classifies x-rays. What influence does the spacing of exemplars have on induction? Compared with massing, spacing enhances long-term recall, but we expected spacing to hamper induction by making the commonalities that define a concept or category less apparent. We asked participants to study multiple paintings by different artists, with a given artist's paintings presented consecutively (massed) or interleaved with other artists' paintings (spaced). We then tested induction by asking participants to indicate which studied artist (Experiments 1a and 1b) or whether any studied artist (Experiment 2) painted each of a series of new paintings. Surprisingly, induction profited from spacing, even though massing apparently created a sense of fluent learning: Participants rated massing as more effective than spacing, even after their own test performance had demonstrated the opposite.
above abstract from


see examples from Head and Neck Radiology also link below


When students encounter a set of concepts (or terms or principles) that are similar in some way, they often confuse one with another. For instance, they might mistake one word for another word with a similar spelling (e.g., allusion instead of illusion) or choose the wrong strategy for a mathematics problem because it resembles a different kind of problem. By one proposition explored in this review, these kinds of errors occur more frequently when all exposures to one of the concepts are grouped together. For instance, in most middle school science texts, the questions in each assignment are devoted to the same concept, and this blocking of exposures ensures that students need not learn to distinguish between two similar concepts. In an alternative approach described in this review, exposures to each concept are interleaved with exposures to other concepts, so that a question on one concept is followed by a question on a different concept. In a number of experiments that have compared interleaving and blocking, interleaving produced better scores on final tests of learning. The evidence is limited, though, and ecologically valid studies are needed. Still, a prudent reading of the data suggests that at least a portion of the exposures should be interleaved.
above quote from
Rohrer, D. (2012). Interleaving helps students distinguish among similar concepts. Educational Psychology Review, 24, 355-367


Learn To Study Using…Interleaving (The Learning Scientists)







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https://learningneuroradiology.blogspot.sg/2018/02/radiology-resident-tutorial-february_22.html



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Norman, G. (2012). Medical education: past, present and future. Perspectives on Medical Education, 1(1), 6–14. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-012-0002-7

"Understanding basic theory using a few illustrative examples. Mastering a topic by exposure to and experience with many examples
Typical examples or real-life scenarios can be used to illustrate theory, and help students understand fundamental principles. Mastering a topic usually requires exposure to and experience with many examples, both typical and atypical, common to uncommon including subtle manifestations of a phenomenon. The traditional method of doing this is via a long apprenticeship, or many years of practice with feedback and experience. A digital collection of educational scenarios and cases can support and potentially shorten this educational and training process. Particularly if a systematic attempt is made to collect and curate a comprehensive collection of all possible educational scenarios and case-based examples, across the whole spectrum of professional practice. Online access to key elements, parts of and whole sections of these learning cases; used by students with guidance by instructors under a deliberate practice and mastery training framework, can potentially accelerate the educational process, and deepen learning."
above from
Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.  http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000105

Goh P, Learning Analytics in Medical Education , MedEdPublish, 2017, 6, [2], 5, doi:https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2017.000067

Matt M. Cirigliano, Charlie Guthrie, Martin V. Pusic, Anna T. Cianciolo, Jennifer E. Lim-Dunham, Anderson Spickard III & Valerie Terry (2017) “Yes, and …” Exploring the Future of Learning Analytics in Medical Education, Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 29:4, 368-372, DOI: 10.1080/10401334.2017.1384731

Chan, T., Sebok-Syer, S., Thoma, B., Wise, A., Sherbino, J. and Pusic, M. Learning Analytics in Medical Education Assessment: The Past, The Present and The Future.  Education and Training, April 2018. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/aet2.10087





"One of the most consistent findings from our research is that, for some tasks, medium doesn't seem to matter. If all students are being asked to do is to understand and remember the big idea or gist of what they're reading, there's no benefit in selecting one medium over another.
But when the reading assignment demands more engagement or deeper comprehension, students may be better off reading print...
we found a select group of undergraduates who actually comprehended better when they moved from print to digital. What distinguished this atypical group was that they actually read slower when the text was on the computer than when it was in a book. In other words, they didn't take the ease of engaging with the digital text for granted. Using this select group as a model, students could possibly be taught or directed to fight the tendency to glide through online texts."
above quotes from article below
http://edition.cnn.com/2017/10/06/health/print-education/index.html

http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20170915-ten-of-the-most-beautiful-modern-libraries-in-the-world

"Today, we’re no longer trusting machines just to do something, but to decide what to do and when to do it. The next generation will grow up in an age where it’s normal to be surrounded by autonomous agents...How do we teach our children to question not only the security and privacy implications but also the ethical and commercial intentions of a device designed by marketers?"
above quote from
Co-Parenting With Alexa (NYTimes, 7 October 2017)




above from
Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4. https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2017.000067


"Requirements for Data Informed Personal, and Personalised eLearning and eTeaching

Privacy. Data Security. Responsible Access/Use. Awareness. Digital literacy. Thoughtful use. Confidence. Public networks and platforms + "Free" commercial/ad driven networks and platforms vs Private/Institutional Intranets and Learning Management Systems

What are some of the key requirements necessary to take full advantage of an eLearning/Technology enhanced learning platform and process?

How can we take advantage of the flexibility, low cost (often "free"), scale and reach of public networks and platforms (for example Instagram, WhatsApp, WeChat, Facebook, Blogger, LinkedIn), and combine this with the greater privacy, rule based use and governance of private (password, dual-key, biometric secured) and institutional networks, which are still potentially vulnerable to potential data breeches, data misuse, hacking, and data loss/theft?

Do we respond by not participating? or restricted/limited participation? creating silos, both online, and some off-line? Not using digital formats? Going offline?

I believe one sensible, and safe approach is to combine, or blend the use of fully public, semi-private, and private digital platforms and approaches, some off-line, some online.

We can learn from our current cautious, and informed use of digital medical records by our healthcare systems; and translate strategies and approaches to the use of student and trainee records and data (learning and training logs, data streams and artefacts). We can also learn from financial practice and the finance industry, in their use of encryption and blockchain for example, at an institutional and system level."
above from
https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.sg/2017/10/requirements-for-data-informed-personal.html











Modular Blended eFaculty Development using Blogs and Instagram

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Instagram stream (below) as hyperlinked, online-mobile accessible, interactive SlideDeck

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Concrete examples data informing teaching and learning from Poh-Sun Goh


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Instagram - for grabbing attention, showing value

Slideshare - for access, analytics (views, downloads, clipping)

Blogger - for access, analytics, as digital repository
Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Padlet - as online bulletin board, for access
Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. An innovative approach to digitally flip the classroom by using an online "graffiti wall" with a blog. Med Teach. 2016 Aug;38(8):858. Epub 2016 Jul 14.


click on tile above to access website