Wednesday, 24 June 2020

Medical Education Disrupted by Technology, What is Gained and Potentially Lost

Frontiers in Medical and Health Sciences Education 2020
"Medical Education Disrupted – Negativity or Creativity"
Date: November 27-28, 2020 (Friday and Saturday)
Venue: Cheung Kung Hai Conference Centre, G/F, William MW Mong Block
Faculty of Medicine Building, The University of Hong Kong
21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong

https://www.bimhse.hku.hk/home/events-post/frontiers-conference-2020/

https://www.bimhse.hku.hk/FIMHSE2020/speakers/

https://www.bimhse.hku.hk/FIMHSE2020/programme-rundown/

E-ruptions in Education: Symposium
Second Plenary Session
What’s Now?

This session looks at e-learning from a variety of perspectives and how it is influencing, transforming and disrupting conventional medical and health sciences education.

Medical Education Disrupted by Technology, What is Gained and Potentially Lost
Poh-Sun Goh

Medical Education and Professional Training is increasingly being assisted, mediated and augmented by technology, throughout the continuum of undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing medical education and professional development settings. This mirrors the impact of technology and digitalisation disrupting professional practice in other fields. The aim of this plenary presentation will be to critically examine what is gained, and potentially lost by the use of technology in medical education, through the use of case studies, and an examination of scholarship in this area. A review of basic principles underpinning traditional face to face education and training, the use of technology in medical education, and optimal ways to blend face to face with technology enhanced learning with be made. An examination of “newer” technologies used in medical education, including Virtual and Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, and the role of learning analytics will also be covered.To conclude, one approach to maximise the strengths and minimise the weaknesses of traditional education blended with technology enhanced learning will be proposed.

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/06/transformational-change-in-scholarship.html

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2943

Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. (2019). Using Technology to Nurture Core Human Values in Healthcare. MededPublish, 8, [3], 74, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000223.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2706

Goh PS., Sandars J (2019). Increasing tensions in the ubiquitous use of technology for medical education. Med Teach. Accepted for publication, 22 October 2018, published online 16 January 2019.
DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1540773
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30646780

Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000105
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/607

Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982639

Lee, W. W., Alkureishi, M. L., Wroblewski, K. E., Farnan, J. M., & Arora, V. M. (2017). Incorporating the human touch: piloting a curriculum for patient-centered electronic health record use. Medical education online, 22(1), 1396171. https://doi.org/10.1080/10872981.2017.1396171
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5678228/


The value of human touch in health care
https://www.optum.com/health-insights/human-touch.html

https://www.healthcareitnews.com/ai-powered-healthcare/ai-protecting-human-touch-more-important-ever

https://www.raconteur.net/healthcare/patients-tech-human-touch

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/08/well/live/the-importance-of-medical-touch.html

https://theconversation.com/touch-creates-a-healing-bond-in-health-care-59637


'... technological innovations that reduce interpersonal contact are met in our society with a demand for increased contact ...the specialty has accepted and joined in the criticism of the medical establishment as too concerned with technology at the expense of human relationships.'
above quote from
Charles Christianson in Family Practice as an Anti-Establishment Movement, page 195 in
Family Medicine: The Maturing of a Discipline

https://www.amazon.com/High-Tech-Touch-Technology-Meaning/dp/0767903838

https://www.quotetab.com/quote/by-john-naisbitt/the-more-technology-we-introduce-into-society-the-more-people-will-aggregate-wi

https://www.quotetab.com/quote/by-john-naisbitt/we-are-drowning-in-information-but-starved-for-knowledge

'All successful innovation is the mixture of high tech and high touch.'
above quote from
Darren McKnight in High Tech, High Touch, page 28 in
Hitting the Innovation Jackpot: Practical Essays on Innovation


'Getting information off the Internet is like taking a drink from a fire hydrant.'
Mitch Kapor
https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/mitch_kapor_163583


'Digital education is generating new learning opportunities as students engage in online, digital environments and as faculty change educational practices through the use of hybrid courses, personalized instruction, new collaboration models and a wide array of innovative, engaging learning strategies. Furthermore, a 21st century view of learner success requires students to not only be thoughtful consumers of digital content, but effective and collaborative creators of digital media, demonstrating competencies and communicating ideas through dynamic storytelling, data visualization and content curation.'
above quote from
David Goodrum, director of academic technology and information services, Oregon State University, in Campus Technology (page 3)


https://tophat.com/blog/6-pros-cons-technology-classroom/

https://www.classcraft.com/blog/features/pros-and-cons-of-technology-in-the-classroom/

https://inspirationfeed.com/negative-effects-of-technology-in-education/

https://www.viewsonic.com/library/education/5-disadvantages-of-technology-in-the-classroom-and-how-to-overcome-them/

https://www.theedadvocate.org/dark-side-educational-technology/

https://universityhomeworkhelp.com/15-disadvantages-of-technology-in-education/

Alhumaid, Khadija. (2019). Four Ways Technology Has Negatively Changed Education. Journal of Educational and Social Research. 9. 10-20. 10.2478/jesr-2019-0049.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336969538_Four_Ways_Technology_Has_Negatively_Changed_Education


https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/learning-continuum-mapped-on-to-self-vs-instructor-directed-axes

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/online-learning-pathway-progression

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/effective-learning-is-a-repetitive-iterative-cumulative-process

Google search for 'how to maximise the strengths and minimise the weaknesses of online learning'

https://www.uis.edu/ion/resources/tutorials/online-education-overview/strengths-and-weaknesses/

http://academic.son.wisc.edu/wistrec/archive/OnlineLearning/Strengths.htm


https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/future-of-work/jobs-lost-jobs-gained-what-the-future-of-work-will-mean-for-jobs-skills-and-wages


https://www.cnet.com/news/apples-future-ar-pieces-hide-in-the-corners-during-a-virtual-wwdc/

https://www.electronicdesign.com/industrial-automation/article/21119718/4-predictions-for-the-first-year-of-the-ambient-computing-decade

https://www.healthcare.digital/single-post/2019/07/31/Ambient-Computing-the-new-battleground-in-Digital-Health

Ambient AI And The Future Of Medicine

https://www.neurosciencemarketing.com/blog/articles/audio-vs-video.htm

Measuring narrative engagement: The heart tells the story
Daniel C. Richardson, Nicole K. Griffin, Lara Zaki, Auburn Stephenson, Jiachen Yan, John Hogan, Jeremy I. Skipper, Joseph T. Devlin
bioRxiv 351148; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/351148

https://www.theverge.com/2018/3/12/17106688/bose-ar-audio-augmented-reality-glasses-demo-sxsw-2018

Cidota, M., Lukosch, S., Datcu, D. et al. Comparing the Effect of Audio and Visual Notifications on Workspace Awareness Using Head-Mounted Displays for Remote Collaboration in Augmented Reality. Augment Hum Res 1, 1 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41133-016-0003-x
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41133-016-0003-x


and

Panel Discussion
Learner of the Present, Practitioners of the Future

How is the disruption in education going to affect future practice? Overseas and local educators and clinicians are going to share their thoughts and experiences.  The perspectives of both learners and practitioners will be explored.

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/learning-and-training-for-transfer

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/04/iamse-2020-plenary-presentation-medical.html

Transformational change in the scholarship of medical education - Best Practice Session @ AMEE 2020: The Virtual Conference

https://amee.org/conferences/amee-2020/programme/best-practice/sustaining-the-move-to-online-teaching-and-learnin

Best Practice session at AMEE 2020: The Virtual Conference – 7-9 September 2020

Sustaining the move to online teaching and learning during and after the COVID-19 pandemic 

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a huge global shift to online delivery of the curriculum, with many innovative approaches. Sustaining these changes to provide high quality teaching and learning using online approaches will require a transformational change in learners, educators and institutions. This change will be a challenge for all medical educators, in both high and low resource settings. An essential aspect of responding to this challenge will be a transformational change in the scholarship of medical education to ensure that rapid cycles of evaluation can inform best practice.

Chair - John

Presenters

Transformational change in learners  (12 minutes) - Monika

Transformational change in educators and institutions  (12 minutes) - Kalyani

Transformational change in the scholarship of medical education (12 minutes) - John and Poh-Sun

 - Key areas to change and effective responses based on 'best practice' and examples eg from MedEdPublish

- Importance of rapid iterative cycles of evaluation to refine interventions through use of action research and educational design research, and rapid dissemination.

-Consider implications for providing evidence.

-Recommendations on 'best practice' and examples eg from MedEdPublish



Three (conceptual) definitions:

➡ 'Best Practice is' - 'A technique or methodology that, through experience and research, has proven to reliably lead to a desired result'.
quoted from
https://searchsoftwarequality.techtarget.com/definition/best-practice#

➡ 'Digitalisation is' - 'Digitalisation is the incorporation of digital technologies into business/social processes, with the goal of improving them'.
quoted from
https://www.scrive.com/digitalisation/

➡ 'Digital transformation is' - 'a change in how a firm employs digital technologies, to develop a new digital business model that helps to create and appropriate more value for the firm'.
quoted from
Peter C. Verhoef, Thijs Broekhuizen, Yakov Bart, Abhi Bhattacharya, John Qi Dong, Nicolai Fabian, Michael Haenlein. (2019) 'Digital transformation: A multidisciplinary reflection and research agenda',
Journal of Business Research,
ISSN 0148-2963, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.09.022.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296319305478)

and
- 'Digital transformation marks a radical rethinking of how an organization uses technology, people and processes to fundamentally change business performance'.
George Westerman
MIT principal research scientist
Author of Leading Digital: Turning Technology Into Business Transformation
quoted in
https://www.cio.com/article/3211428/what-is-digital-transformation-a-necessary-disruption.html

and
- 'Digital transformation is a foundational change in how an organization delivers value to its customers'.
Clint Boulton
quoted from
https://www.cio.com/article/3211428/what-is-digital-transformation-a-necessary-disruption.html

and

Three takeaways:
Poh-Sun Goh

⏯First takeaway: Digital Content (for Teaching and Scholarship)

1. Digital content (created and curated), the web, software (apps) and mobile devices enable educators to connect with learners with much less resource constraints than earlier generations, much faster, and easier. Digital content includes digital artefacts and evidence of our scholarly efforts. Our scholarly output is visible, accessible, and assessable - both quantity and quality.

Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982639

Expanded narrative for first takeaway below.

Technology enhanced learning, or eLearning.

Reflecting on my use of Technology in teaching, learning, and in faculty development today.

Key words which come to mind include ‘ease” of use, ‘expanding’ and ‘extending’ access, and my reach as a teacher, with students and trainees, and fellow teachers. To create, and curate content (with attribution), including graphics, video and multimedia. To work together, and collaborate.

There is great democratisation of access to, and understanding of how to use the tools and platforms available. We start off with digital content (our PowerPoint deck comes to mind), which can then be accessed, and shared, in multiple formats and forms.

➡ Sustainable/sustaining implementation tip: Focus on curating and creating reusable, granular and modular digital content accessible and assessable on online digital repositories - (some open access, some restricted access digital content following appropriate and accepted professional usage guidelines, including those for professional use, consent, privacy, and attribution/intellectual property). This includes digital artefacts and examples of our scholarly output, in digital portfolios.

The limiting factors are time, motivation, awareness, training - including in pedagogy, instructional design and design thinking, and an experimental, rapid improvement, scholarly and scholarship mindset, and mindfulness of not only the positive use of technology, but also the ‘dark’ side of technology use, and pitfalls in its use.

All this against a backdrop of ongoing rapid, exciting, exponential expansion of technology adoption and use by increasing numbers of individuals worldwide, with technology development, and innovative application of technology within, and outside education making the news on a daily basis. The excitement, and engagement I feel with technology use is due to many of the features and points made in Step 1 (section first posted on blogpost below).

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2018/12/what-is-technology-enhanced-learning.html


⏯Second takeaway: Digital platforms (for Teaching and Scholarship)

2. Technology/Digitalisation enables rapid content curation, and much easier content creation, and dissemination, aided by low cost and open access platforms and tools which promote access, and visibility of our educational and training efforts. This includes digitalisation of the scholarly process. Indicators and metrics, visibility and access to intermediate and final outcomes of our scholarly activities to engage with, evaluate and assess.

Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558420

Expanded narrative for takeaway 2 below.

Digital Scholarship and Engagement - Indicators, Metrics, Value and Impact

eLearning or TEL(Technology Enhanced Learning) is increasingly being integrated into medical education and training, from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing education and lifelong learning settings, with increasing emphasis on blended and mobile learning, in the workplace and just-in-time settings. TEL with utilisation of digital content and engagement provides visibility of our teaching and training efforts as educators, showing ‘what we teach with, and assess on’ (Goh, 2016). TEL approaches can also be used to provide visibility and metrics of student engagement, as well as demonstrate intermediate and final outcomes of student learning (Goh & Sandars, 2016; Goh, 2017). TEL is increasing transforming medical education, going beyond substitution, augmentation and modification of learning - the ‘SAMR model’ (Puentedura, 2013). Reflective educators, and educational scholars have always sought to evaluate and assess the value and impact of their teaching and training efforts, and Digital Scholarship, with attention paid to data, indicators and metrics of engagement and output, can facilitate these efforts. Use of 'free', low cost, off the shelf, easy to use and accessible digital tools and platforms, combined with curated and created digital content repositories, by faculty who are 'digitally literate' and professional, facilitates adoption and scaling up of our scholarly efforts (Goh, 2018). This has direct benefits for faculty members during the academic appointment, appraisal and promotion process; for an academic community by making scholarly activities easily accessible, and for an institution by making academic and scholarly activities by faculty members both easily accessible and visible.
(above posted earlier on blogpost link below)
https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2018/09/digital-scholarship.html

➡ Sustainable/sustaining implementation tip: Use open access and usable/easy to use low cost technology tools and platforms. Know what tech is available to faculty and students. Which can be used to support our teaching, and scholarly efforts.

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/adoption-of-elearning-in-med-ed-costs-and-value-add-82738401


⏯Third takeaway: Digital processes (for Teaching and Scholarship)

3. Rapid cycle, by design, iterative, cumulative educational and scholarly efforts assisted and augmented by technology promotes academic discourse and peer critique and feedback, building and adding to communities of practice as educators, and scholars. Technology enhances and offers the potential to transform educational scholarship.

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000097.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3116

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-scholarship-in-medical-education-145349537

Expanded narrative for takeaway 3 below.

Our creativity, and innovation efforts are assisted by technology to enable rapid cycle action research, informed by design thinking principles. Creativity, Curation, Transfer to Practice, and Digital Teaching (with learning analytics making the educational and training process as well as intermediate and final outcomes of learning and training visible, accessible and available for evaluation) have analogies with accepted categories of the Scholarship of Discovery, Integration, Application and Teaching. By being open, accessible and assessable, technology facilitates, enables, and augments both traditional and newer forms of scholarship, and provides visibility and evidence of this for academic review and recognition. The COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated the impact of open sharing of clinical and educational case studies, and clinical practices (both effective, and less so) in a collaborative, networked world - for example https://www.nejm.org/coronavirus (NEJM Covid-19 resources) and https://amee.org/covid-19 (AMEE Covid-19 resources, including interactive webinars, and rapid open access post publication peer review online journal articles in MedEdPublish). This facilitates peer and academic critique, commentary and possibilities to learn from, and add to the efforts of individuals, groups and societies, with impact illustrated vividly and openly in our public health response to the Covid-19 pandemic; and rapid, usable, useful and effective widespread implementation of online learning and training.

➡ Sustainable/sustaining implementation tip: What before Why and How. Know purpose/outcomes, pedagogy, content and technology. Practices founded on empirical observation, experience, feedback, data, evidence, evaluation (of outcomes and impact) and scholarship. Digital artefacts and examples of our scholarly output within digital portfolios can be systematically, progressively and cumulatively assembled, following accepted traditional and newer criteria (quantitative and qualitative) for assessing and evaluating academic output, and impact, producing a coherent narrative and portfolio of academic work. Digitalisation and technology facilitates and potentially transforms the process, outputs and outcomes of our academic work.

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/building-blocks-of-digital-scholarship-in-medical-education

Goh PS, 2016, 'The value and impact of eLearning or Technology enhanced learning from one perspective of a Digital Scholar', MedEdPublish, 5, [3], 31, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000117
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/613

--------

➡ 'Digitalisation is' - 'Digitalisation is the incorporation of digital technologies into business/social processes, with the goal of improving them'.
quoted from
https://www.scrive.com/digitalisation/


Digitalisation can:

Show what we teach with and assess on.
Show how we teach, and students learn.
Show outcomes and impact of our educational and training efforts.
Allow us to engage in and demonstrate scholarship in a visible, accessible and assessable manner.

                                         Poh-Sun Goh, 28 June 2020 @ 0849am


Digital Scholarship is:

"The use of technology to support educational scholarship has been called digital scholarship" (Goh and Sandars, 2019)
Goh PS, Sandars J, 2019, 'Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world', MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286

Digital Scholarship to make (our efforts) visible, accessible, and assessable

Digital scholarship, to add to academic discourse, and get recognised for this
(can be disseminated and scaled up on Social Media)

e.g.
https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/03/a-vision-of-use-of-technology-in.html

#IAMSE20 Plenary: Medical Educator Roles of the Future
see below
https://www.facebook.com/pg/MedicalEducator/videos/

https://twitter.com/search?q=poh-sun%20goh&src=typed_query

https://twitter.com/search?q=poh%20sun%20goh&src=typed_query

https://twitter.com/search?q=goh%20poh%20sun&src=typed_query



above from

see more on

and


below example of outcomes from faculty development workshop on Technology enhanced learning (TEL) or eLearning

End of Session Exercise
Illustrated below, with narrated slide audio clip link below (Using AVR audio note taking free App for IOS platform, one of many for illustration. Note Android has similar Apps.)

for above slide

above example of outcomes from faculty development workshop on eLearning or TEL
more on link below

---------

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-scholar-the-scholarship-cycle-valueimpactrecognition

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/06/rethinking-scholarship-of-teaching-and.html


⏯Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000097.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3116

⏯Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2943

⏯Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3068

⏯Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286
https://doaj.org/article/4ee2c0c28d0f4437b5cfbffd78e08e53

⏯Sandars, J., & Goh, P.-S. (2020). Design Thinking in Medical Education: The Key Features and Practical Application. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 7, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120520926518


Weller, M. (2011) The Digital Scholar: How Technology Is Transforming Scholarly Practice. London: Bloomsbury Academic. http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781849666275
see Chapter 1: Digital, Networked and Open
and Chapter 4: The Nature of Scholarship
and Chapter 11: Reward and Tenure



Sunday, 21 June 2020

Interactive M3 Radiology Tutorials


Open access online material - for discussion during "live" online Zoom tutorial, Wednesday, 24 June 2020 @ 1pm. NUS Entrada session link


Some tips to increase your learning and training effectiveness and efficiency:
Poh-Sun Goh

1. Reflect on the purpose of your medical education and expected outcomes of your undergraduate education and clinical training process.
2. Your current clinical exposure to case based learning in the emergency department, wards, and clinics-outpatient settings builds on a foundation of pre-clinical basic sciences in year 1 and 2 of the medical program (with anatomy and pathology particularly applicable to the interpretation of radiology / imaging studies of your patients).
3. For the abdomen, think about what anatomical structures lie within the area of interest/clinical presentation, or may present with the clinical symptoms and signs exhibited by your patients. Ask yourself what radiological investigation you might request or review in order to make a diagnosis - to rule in, or rule out potential clinical diagnosis. Radiology helps you to "see living anatomy and pathology" in your patients. Thus confirm or exclude diagnosis. Keep in mind that early disease may have very subtle of "negative" imaging during the early stages of clinically symptomatic disease.
4. Review the Radiology studies for your patients. Ask yourself why certain investigations were performed. And in what order.
5. Correlate imaging findings with your clinical observations. Do they make sense, correlate with clinical findings, or do you have to entertain alternative diagnostic possibilities?
6. Use textbooks and a wide variety of online resources to improve your diagnostic and interpretative skills. Practice, practice, practice with reflection and feedback, using a range of resources, to increase your exposure to the variety and spectrum of clinical and imaging findings, both normal and abnormal, from typical, to less common and atypical (as you progress to increase your experience and mastery of clinical practice, and improve your knowledge and skills from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing professional development and lifelong learning settings).





Saturday, 20 June 2020

Rethinking the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning for a Digital Age

Rethinking the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning for a Digital Age 

The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) is a set of unifying ideas centred around proposals put forward in a series of scholarly articles by Boyer, Glassick, Hutchings and Shulman, and embraced by the scholarly community (Boyer 1990; Glassick 2000; Hutchings & Schulman 1999). The aim of this Short Communication is to expand upon each category of scholarship proposed by Boyer, by adding the scholarship of Creation, Curation with attribution, Transfer to practice, and Workplace/Lifelong learning; add to Glassick’s six standards the Digital standards of Openness and Visibility, and expand on Hutchings and Shulman’s three minimum requirements of scholarship by incorporating ideas from networked learning and connectivism by George Siemens (Siemens 2005). We hope that this article contributes to move forward thinking on the SoTL, for a Digital Age.

The Scholarship of Creation is well accepted in the Arts, and has analogies to the creative process when a medical educator creates educational materials. A strong argument can be made, and has been made that this is similar to the recognition that artists receive, particularly when their work is presented for public review, critique and commentary (Boyer 1990; Hutchings & Schulman 1999). The creation of digital materials for medical education and training, is hard work, often inspirited by the same creative impulse that drives artistic endeavours, particularly when imbued with an intentional, informed, reflective, scholarly approach; and is similar to the scholarship of discovery. Awareness of this should be raised in both the medical education community, and amongst our administrative peers, to recognise and reward medical education scholars during appointments, promotion and the tenure process.

Similarly, the act of artistic curation, and the professional work of curators in the Arts, has similarities to the work of medical educators, when we assemble educational and training materials. A strong argument again can be made that this has similarities to the Scholarship of Integration (Boyer 1990), and should be given academic and professional recognition and reward, similar to the Scholarship of Creation. Digital platforms and processes makes the Scholarship of Curation open, accessible and visible.

Taking this argument further, the act, or Scholarship of Transfer to Practice, has an analogy with the Scholarship of Application. Digital practice makes this again particularly open, and visible to peers, assessors and evaluators, and when a scholarly approach as proposed by Glassick (2000) is applied to this Scholarship of Practice, appropriate academic recognition can be again accorded to this effort. 

The focus of outcomes of learning and teaching guides both the Scholarship of Teaching, and our focus in Workplace and Lifelong learning. Technology enhanced learning (TEL), makes the educational and learning process, as well as performance outcomes of this process open and visible, through a digital analytics process (Goh 2017). 

As we examine the categories of scholarship proposed by Boyer, the affordances of digital teaching and learning, and draw analogies and inspiration from practices in the Arts; an argument can be made that awareness, and recognition of the efforts of medical educators in Creation, Curation, Transfer to Practice and Workplace and Lifelong learning can and should given.


References:

Boyer EL. 1990. Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Glassick CE. 2000. Boyer's expanded definitions of scholarship, the standards for assessing scholarship, and the elusiveness of the scholarship of teaching. Acad
Med. Sep;75(9):877-80.

Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4. https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2017.000067
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/944

Siemens G. 2005. Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age.International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1), 3-10.

Hutchings P, Shulman LS. 1999. The Scholarship of Teaching: New Elaborations, New Developments, Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 31:5, 10-15, DOI: 10.1080/00091389909604218


Three takeaways:

1) The scholarship categories proposed by Boyer (Discovery, Integration, Application and Teaching) can be each expanded to include Creation (Digital content and online repositories), Curation with attribution, Transfer to practice and Work place/Life long learning. 

2) That we add to Glassick's six standards (Clear goals, adequate preparation, appropriate methods, significant results, effective presentation and reflective critique) with Digital standards of openness (with focus on making the learning process, and data to inform - demonstrate outcomes of learning visible and accessible openly online).

3) That we expand on Schulman's three minimum requirements of scholarship (public, in form suitable for critical review and evaluation, accessible for exchange with, and to be build upon by other members of the scholarly community) for the digital age, incorporating the ideas from George Siemens (connectivism: a learning theory for the digital age) combined with classical educational pedagogy of relevant, contextual, collaborative, active learning with feedback.

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2018/09/digital-scholarship.html


Weller, M. (2011) The Digital Scholar: How Technology Is Transforming Scholarly Practice. London: Bloomsbury Academic. http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781849666275
see Chapter 1: Digital, Networked and Open
and Chapter 4: The Nature of Scholarship
and Chapter 11: Reward and Tenure





Tuesday, 5 May 2020

(e)Portfolios as visible and tangible evidence showcasing intermediate and final outcomes of learning, training, and professional practice

Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286
https://doaj.org/article/4ee2c0c28d0f4437b5cfbffd78e08e53

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000097.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3116

Sandars, J., & Goh, P.-S. (2020). Design Thinking in Medical Education: The Key Features and Practical Application. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 7, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120520926518



https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2017/10/requirements-for-data-informed-personal.html

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/concrete-examples-data-informing-teaching-and-learning

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-medical-education-content-engagement-and-outcomes

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/learning-and-training-for-transfer

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/applied-learning-analytics-for-e-teachers


https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/building-blocks-of-digital-scholarship-in-medical-education

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2017/09/sotl-in-meded.html


Google search for 'professional and educational portfolios as assessment of learning'

Monday, 27 April 2020

Digital Scholarship in Medical Education 2020





(illustrated screencast video, with audio)
Created on Screencastify.

Message to CenMED NUS SoTL and RIME workshop participants (on 20 June 2020, shared with workshop participants 2 weeks before the workshop)

'Digital Scholarship in Medical Education'

Dear workshop participants, 

In the 2 weeks before the workshop, please read, take notes on, and reflect upon the messages in the review paper below on the topic of digital scholarship, including how these ideas might apply in, and assist you in your practice as an educator, and educational scholar.

Quinn, A., Chan, T. M., Sampson, C., Grossman, C., Butts, C., Casey, J., Caretta-Weyer, H., & Gottlieb, M. (2018). Curated Collections for Educators: Five Key Papers on Evaluating Digital Scholarship. Cureus, 10(1), e2021. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2021
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837232/

May I recommend that you also skim through the slides and resources on the blogpost for a workshop on this topic at AMEE 2019
https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2019/06/tel-amee-2019.html

workshop and symposium on this topic at APMEC 2019
https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2018/09/digital-scholarship.html

and updated blogpost on this topic in 2020
https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/04/digital-scholarship-in-medical.html

Look forward to discussing these ideas further with you during the workshop.

With warmest regards,
Poh-Sun


Digital Scholarship in Medical Education - Three key takeaways

"The use of technology to support educational scholarship has been called digital scholarship" (Goh and Sandars, 2019)
Goh PS, Sandars J, 2019, 'Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world', MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286

Digital Scholarship to make (our efforts) visible, accessible, and assessable

Digital scholarship, to add to academic discourse, and get recognised for this
(can be disseminated and scaled up on Social Media)

______

➡ 'Digitalisation is' - 'Digitalisation is the incorporation of digital technologies into business/social processes, with the goal of improving them'.
quoted from
https://www.scrive.com/digitalisation/


Digitalisation can:

Show what we teach with and assess on.
Show how we teach, and students learn.
Show outcomes and impact of our educational and training efforts.
Allow us to engage in and demonstrate scholarship in a visible, accessible and assessable manner.

                                         Poh-Sun Goh, 28 June 2020 @ 0849am


Digital Scholarship is:

"The use of technology to support educational scholarship has been called digital scholarship" (Goh and Sandars, 2019)
Goh PS, Sandars J, 2019, 'Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world', MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286

Digital Scholarship to make (our efforts) visible, accessible, and assessable

Digital scholarship, to add to academic discourse, and get recognised for this
(can be disseminated and scaled up on Social Media)

e.g.
https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/03/a-vision-of-use-of-technology-in.html

#IAMSE20 Plenary: Medical Educator Roles of the Future
see below
https://www.facebook.com/pg/MedicalEducator/videos/

https://twitter.com/search?q=poh-sun%20goh&src=typed_query

https://twitter.com/search?q=poh%20sun%20goh&src=typed_query

https://twitter.com/search?q=goh%20poh%20sun&src=typed_query


above from





"Rethinking the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning for a Digital Age"
 by Poh-Sun Goh
available on the following blogpost ⏯https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2019/05/sotl-and-rime-workshop-cenmed-wednesday.html

reproduced below section:

Rethinking the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning for a Digital Age 
Poh-Sun Goh 

The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) is a set of unifying ideas centred around proposals put forward in a series of scholarly articles by Boyer, Glassick, Hutchings and Shulman, and embraced by the scholarly community (Boyer 1990; Glassick 2000; Hutchings & Schulman 1999). The aim of this Short Communication is to expand upon each category of scholarship proposed by Boyer, by adding the scholarship of Creation, Curation with attribution, Transfer to practice, and Workplace/Lifelong learning; add to Glassick’s six standards the Digital standards of Openness and Visibility, and expand on Hutchings and Shulman’s three minimum requirements of scholarship by incorporating ideas from networked learning and connectivism by George Siemens (Siemens 2005). We hope that this article contributes to move forward thinking on the SoTL, for a Digital Age.

The Scholarship of Creation is well accepted in the Arts, and has analogies to the creative process when a medical educator creates educational materials. A strong argument can be made, and has been made that this is similar to the recognition that artists receive, particularly when their work is presented for public review, critique and commentary (Boyer 1990; Hutchings & Schulman 1999). The creation of digital materials for medical education and training, is hard work, often inspirited by the same creative impulse that drives artistic endeavours, particularly when imbued with an intentional, informed, reflective, scholarly approach; and is similar to the scholarship of discovery. Awareness of this should be raised in both the medical education community, and amongst our administrative peers, to recognise and reward medical education scholars during appointments, promotion and the tenure process.

Similarly, the act of artistic curation, and the professional work of curators in the Arts, has similarities to the work of medical educators, when we assemble educational and training materials. A strong argument again can be made that this has similarities to the Scholarship of Integration (Boyer 1990), and should be given academic and professional recognition and reward, similar to the Scholarship of Creation. Digital platforms and processes makes the Scholarship of Curation open, accessible and visible.

Taking this argument further, the act, or Scholarship of Transfer to Practice, has an analogy with the Scholarship of Application. Digital practice makes this again particularly open, and visible to peers, assessors and evaluators, and when a scholarly approach as proposed by Glassick (2000) is applied to this Scholarship of Practice, appropriate academic recognition can be again accorded to this effort. 

The focus of outcomes of learning and teaching guides both the Scholarship of Teaching, and our focus in Workplace and Lifelong learning. Technology enhanced learning (TEL), makes the educational and learning process, as well as performance outcomes of this process open and visible, through a digital analytics process (Goh 2017). 

As we examine the categories of scholarship proposed by Boyer, the affordances of digital teaching and learning, and draw analogies and inspiration from practices in the Arts; an argument can be made that awareness, and recognition of the efforts of medical educators in Creation, Curation, Transfer to Practice and Workplace and Lifelong learning can and should given.


References:

Boyer EL. 1990. Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Glassick CE. 2000. Boyer's expanded definitions of scholarship, the standards for assessing scholarship, and the elusiveness of the scholarship of teaching. Acad
Med. Sep;75(9):877-80.

Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4. https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2017.000067
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/944

Siemens G. 2005. Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age.International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1), 3-10.

Hutchings P, Shulman LS. 1999. The Scholarship of Teaching: New Elaborations, New Developments, Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 31:5, 10-15, DOI: 10.1080/00091389909604218


Three takeaways:

1) The scholarship categories proposed by Boyer (Discovery, Integration, Application and Teaching) can be each expanded to include Creation (Digital content and online repositories), Curation with attribution, Transfer to practice and Work place/Life long learning. 

2) That we add to Glassick's six standards (Clear goals, adequate preparation, appropriate methods, significant results, effective presentation and reflective critique) with Digital standards of openness (with focus on making the learning process, and data to inform - demonstrate outcomes of learning visible and accessible openly online).

3) That we expand on Schulman's three minimum requirements of scholarship (public, in form suitable for critical review and evaluation, accessible for exchange with, and to be build upon by other members of the scholarly community) for the digital age, incorporating the ideas from George Siemens (connectivism: a learning theory for the digital age) combined with classical educational pedagogy of relevant, contextual, collaborative, active learning with feedback.

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2018/09/digital-scholarship.html


Weller, M. (2011) The Digital Scholar: How Technology Is Transforming Scholarly Practice. London: Bloomsbury Academic. http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781849666275
see Chapter 1: Digital, Networked and Open
and Chapter 4: The Nature of Scholarship
and Chapter 11: Reward and Tenure

🔺










Digital Scholar - The Scholarship Cycle, Value-Impact-Recognition from Poh-Sun Goh


above some illustrative examples from last 12 months


Digital Scholarship and Engagement - Indicators, Metrics, Value and Impact
by 
Poh-Sun Goh 

eLearning or TEL(Technology Enhanced Learning) is increasingly being integrated into medical education and training, from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing education and lifelong learning settings, with increasing emphasis on blended and mobile learning, in the workplace and just-in-time settings. TEL with utilisation of digital content and engagement provides visibility of our teaching and training efforts as educators, showing ‘what we teach with, and assess on’ (Goh, 2016). TEL approaches can also be used to provide visibility and metrics of student engagement, as well as demonstrate intermediate and final outcomes of student learning (Goh & Sandars, 2016; Goh, 2017). TEL is increasing transforming medical education, going beyond substitution, augmentation and modification of learning - the ‘SAMR model’ (Puentedura, 2013). Reflective educators, and educational scholars have always sought to evaluate and assess the value and impact of their teaching and training efforts, and Digital Scholarship, with attention paid to data, indicators and metrics of engagement and output, can facilitate these efforts. Use of 'free', low cost, off the shelf, easy to use and accessible digital tools and platforms, combined with curated and created digital content repositories, by faculty who are 'digitally literate' and professional, facilitates adoption and scaling up of our scholarly efforts (Goh, 2018). This has direct benefits for faculty members during the academic appointment, appraisal and promotion process; for an academic community by making scholarly activities easily accessible, and for an institution by making academic and scholarly activities by faculty members both easily accessible and visible.

More on expanded blogpost link below

References:

Goh, P.S. eLearning in Medical Education - Costs and Value Add. The Asia Pacific Scholar (TAPS). Published online: 2 May, TAPS 2018, 3(2), 58-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29060/TAPS.2018-3-2/PV1073

Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4. https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2017.000067

Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16

Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. An innovative approach to digitally flip the classroom by using an online "graffiti wall" with a blog. Med Teach. 2016 Aug;38(8):858. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Puentedura, R. R. (2013, May 29). SAMR: Moving from enhancement to transformation [Web log post].

__________________


Building a portfolio of academic scholarship and The academic cycle 
by 
Goh Poh Sun (first draft on April 10th, 2016 at 1737hrs)

"The process of building a portfolio of academic scholarship requires attention to, as well as regular participation in and focus on an area of academic work; getting training, building experience, and developing an understanding of current and topical academic conversations in that area; by reading, attending major academic conferences, through conference presentations, presenting at symposia and workshops; developing ideas further and deepening insights through reflection and discourse; then continuing the academic cycle by getting feedback on these insights by progressively disseminating these ideas through case studies, reflection pieces and peer reviewed papers, both online and through traditional academic peer reviewed publications and conference presentations."

above first posted on


https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2017/01/12-ideas-for-2017.html

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2017/09/sotl-in-meded.html

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2019/06/digital-scholar-participation-in-amee.html

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2018/09/digital-scholarship.html

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2017/09/meded-peer-reviewed-publications.html


Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000097.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3116

Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286

Samarasekera DD, Goh PS, Lee SS, Gwee MCE. The clarion call for a third wave in medical education to optimize healthcare in the twenty-first century. Medical Teacher (accepted for publication, July 2018; epub 9 October 2018).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30299191
(see section on Learning Analytics and Digital Scholarship within article)

Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4. https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2017.000067
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/944


Olle ten Cate, Suzan Dahdal, Thomas Lambert, Florian Neubauer, Anina Pless, Philippe Fabian Pohlmann, Harold van Rijen & Corinne Gurtner (2020) Ten caveats of learning analytics in health professions education: A consumer’s perspective, Medical Teacher, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2020.1733505
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0142159X.2020.1733505


Google search for "digital scholarship in medical education"

Quinn, A., Chan, T. M., Sampson, C., Grossman, C., Butts, C., Casey, J., Caretta-Weyer, H., & Gottlieb, M. (2018). Curated Collections for Educators: Five Key Papers on Evaluating Digital Scholarship. Cureus, 10(1), e2021. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2021
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837232/

Thoma, Brent & Chan, Teresa & Benitez, Javier & Lin, Michelle. (2014). Educational Scholarship in the Digital Age: A Scoping Review and Analysis of Scholarly Products. The Winnower. 1. e141827.77297. 10.15200/winn.141827.77297.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269397237_Educational_Scholarship_in_the_Digital_Age_A_Scoping_Review_and_Analysis_of_Scholarly_Products

Ken Masters (2020) Ethics in medical education digital scholarship: AMEE Guide No. 134, Medical Teacher, 42:3, 252-265, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2019.1695043
https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2019.1695043


https://www.businesstimes.com.sg/companies-markets/bt-new-digital-subscriptions-double-in-april-from-march-amid-covid-19

https://www.businesstimes.com.sg/technology/wall-street-mines-apple-google-mobility-data-to-spot-revival

https://www.apple.com/sg/newsroom/2020/04/apple-makes-mobility-data-available-to-aid-covid-19-efforts/

https://www.apple.com/covid19/mobility/

https://www.google.com/covid19/mobility/

https://www.gstatic.com/covid19/mobility/2020-05-07_SG_Mobility_Report_en.pdf

Quinn, A., Chan, T. M., Sampson, C., Grossman, C., Butts, C., Casey, J., Caretta-Weyer, H., & Gottlieb, M. (2018). Curated Collections for Educators: Five Key Papers on Evaluating Digital Scholarship. Cureus, 10(1), e2021. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2021
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837232/

Cabrera D, Roy D, Chisolm MS. Social Media Scholarship and Alternative Metrics for Academic Promotion and Tenure. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018;15(1 Pt B):135‐141. doi:10.1016/j.jacr.2017.09.012
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29122503/
https://www.jacr.org/article/S1546-1440(17)31134-1/pdf

Raffaghelli, J.E. Exploring the (missed) connections between digital scholarship and faculty development: a conceptual analysis. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 14, 20 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-017-0058-x
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s41239-017-0058-x

Sherbino J, Arora VM, Van Melle E, et alCriteria for social media-based scholarship in health professions educationPostgraduate Medical Journal 2015;91:551-555.
https://pmj.bmj.com/content/91/1080/551

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000097.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3116

Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1
https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286


https://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2012/08/17/the-importance-of-substantive-editing/

Publishing in Medical Education (Steve Kanter et. al.; Oxford Textbook of Medical Education)