Tuesday, 4 August 2020

Radiology Resident Case-Based Interactive Tutorial

Learning process - present unknown case, interactive engagement, review outcome (quick, accurate, confident ability to recognise, and justify).

For example - Imaging presentation of sellar mass

Review features. Consider diagnostic possibilities. Justify diagnosis.

'By reviewing research on medical performance and education, the author describes evidence for these representations and their development within the expert- performance framework. He uses the research to generate suggestions for improved training of medical students and professionals. Two strategies— designing learning environments with libraries of cases and creating opportunities for individualized teacher-guided training—should enable motivated individuals to acquire a full set of refined mental representations. Providing the right resources to support the expert- performance approach will allow such individuals to become self-regulated learners—that is, members of the medical community who have the tools to improve their own and their team members’ performances throughout their entire professional careers.'
above quoted from abstract of
Ericsson KA. Acquisition and maintenance of medical expertise: a perspective from the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice. Acad Med. 2015 Nov;90(11):1471-86. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000000939. PubMed PMID: 26375267.

Wednesday, 15 July 2020

Training in Digital Literacy and a Technology Orientation To Future Proof Adaptable, Resilient Healthcare Practitioners to Deliver Holistic Care

Training in Digital Literacy and a Technology Orientation To Future Proof Adaptable, Resilient Healthcare Practitioners to Deliver Holistic Care

Poh-Sun Goh, Yanika Kowitlawakul, and John Wong Chee Meng

APMEC 2021 Virtual Conference Panel Discussion


The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the integration of digitalisation and technology in healthcare practice, and throughout the continuum of education and training, from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing education and professional development. Training in digital literacy and a technology orientation is one key element to enable a future proof, healthcare practitioner. The aim of this panel discussion will be to explore how we can plan a curriculum to do this, and what experiences and competencies we can focus on to produce an adaptable, resilient healthcare practitioner, capable of delivering holistic care. A review of current and near future technology and pedagogy will be made, as well as a critical examination of challenges and pitfalls when using and relying on technology.

Five concept definitions

Digital literacy

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1

A look at digital literacy in health and social care
Susan Kennedy and Jo Yaldren
British Journal of Cardiac Nursing 2017 12:9, 428-432

Kuek, A., & Hakkennes, S. (2020). Healthcare staff digital literacy levels and their attitudes towards information systems. Health Informatics Journal, 26(1), 592–612. https://doi.org/10.1177/1460458219839613


Greenhalgh T. (2014). Future-proofing relationship-based care: a priority for general practice. The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 64(628), 580. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp14X682357


Pype, P., Mertens, F., Helewaut, F. et al. Healthcare teams as complex adaptive systems: understanding team behaviour through team members’ perception of interpersonal interaction. BMC Health Serv Res 18, 570 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3392-3

Richard, L., Torres, S., Tremblay, M. et al. An analysis of the adaptability of a professional development program in public health: results from the ALPS Study. BMC Health Serv Res 15, 233 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-0903-3


Resilience of primary healthcare professionals working in challenging environments: a focus group study. Catriona Matheson, Helen D Robertson, Alison M Elliott, Lisa Iversen, Peter Murchie
British Journal of General Practice 2016; 66 (648): e507-e515. DOI: 10.3399/bjgp16X685285

Lopez V, Yobas P, Chow YL, Shorey S. Does building resilience in undergraduate nursing students happen through clinical placements? A qualitative study. Nurse Educ Today. 2018;67:1-5. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2018.04.020

Emel Bahadır Yılmaz, Resilience as a strategy for struggling against challenges related to the nursing profession, Chinese Nursing Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, 2017, Pages 9-13, ISSN 2095-7718,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnre.2017.03.004. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095771817300075

Nemeth C, Wears R, Woods D, et al. Minding the Gaps: Creating Resilience in Health Care. In: Henriksen K, Battles JB, Keyes MA, et al., editors. Advances in Patient Safety: New Directions and Alternative Approaches (Vol. 3: Performance and Tools). Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2008 Aug. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK43670/

Holistic care

Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. (2019). Using Technology to Nurture Core Human Values in Healthcare. MededPublish, 8, [3], 74, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000223.1

Jasemi, M., Valizadeh, L., Zamanzadeh, V., & Keogh, B. (2017). A Concept Analysis of Holistic Care by Hybrid Model. Indian journal of palliative care, 23(1), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1075.197960

Three takeaways, and Three sustaining innovation tips

Several key competencies and strategies

Awareness, Information, Training (for individual practitioners, teams and institutions) - up to date, current, accurate information and data; including skills to access and assess information. Building individual, team and institutional skills in adaptability, resilience and future-thinking (including in innovation, design thinking, systems thinking and action research). Faculty development and training for teachers. Role of reflection, self-awareness, situational awareness, insight, feedback, support (peer, team, social).


Improving Health Care Worldwide
A Consensus Study Report of The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Lifelong learning for practitioner, teams and institutions - regular systematic efforts to keep up to date, access information, create and share information, data and best practices

Technology enabled, facilitated and augmented

Training to develop a holistic, adaptable, resilient healthcare practitioner from Poh-Sun Goh

Nemeth C, Wears R, Woods D, et al. Minding the Gaps: Creating Resilience in Health Care. In: Henriksen K, Battles JB, Keyes MA, et al., editors. Advances in Patient Safety: New Directions and Alternative Approaches (Vol. 3: Performance and Tools). Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2008 Aug. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK43670/

Fairbanks, Rollin & Wears, Robert & Woods, David & Hollnagel, Erik & Plsek, Paul & Cook, Richard. (2014). Resilience and Resilience Engineering in Health Care. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 40. 10.1016/S1553-7250(14)40049-7.

Anderson, J. E., Ross, A. J., Back, J., Duncan, M., Snell, P., Walsh, K., & Jaye, P. (2016). Implementing resilience engineering for healthcare quality improvement using the CARE model: a feasibility study protocol. Pilot and feasibility studies, 2, 61. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-016-0103-x

Neufeld A, Malin G, 2020, 'Twelve tips to combat ill-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: A guide for health professionals & educators', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 70, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000070.1

Gonzalo JD, Haidet P, Papp KK, et al. Educating for the 21st-Century Health Care System: An Interdependent Framework of Basic, Clinical, and Systems Sciences. Academic Medicine : Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. 2017 Jan;92(1):35-39. DOI: 10.1097/acm.0000000000000951.

Gonzalo JD, Caverzagie KJ, Hawkins RE, et al. Concerns and Responses for Integrating Health Systems Science Into Medical Education. Academic Medicine : Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. 2018 Jun;93(6):843-849. DOI: 10.1097/acm.0000000000001960.

Gonzalo JD, Chang A, Wolpaw DR. New Educator Roles for Health Systems Science:
Implications of New Physician Competencies for U.S. Medical School Faculty. Acad
Med. 2019 Apr;94(4):501-506. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002552. PubMed PMID:


Frenk, Julio, Lincoln Chen, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Jordan Cohen, Nigel Crisp, Timothy Evans, Harvey Fineberg, et al. 2010. Health professionals for a new century: transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. The Lancet, 376(9756): 1923-1958.

Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education; Board on Global Health; Institute of Medicine; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Envisioning the Future of Health Professional Education: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2016 Apr 18. Introduction. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK362412/

Linda Darling-Hammond, Lisa Flook, Channa Cook-Harvey, Brigid Barron & David Osher (2020) Implications for educational practice of the science of learning and development, Applied Developmental Science, 24:2, 97-140, DOI: 10.1080/10888691.2018.1537791

Tuesday, 14 July 2020

Generation Z and medical education

Google search for 'Generation Z and medical education'

Plochocki J. H. (2019). Several Ways Generation Z May Shape the Medical School Landscape. Journal of medical education and curricular development, 6, 2382120519884325. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120519884325

Eckleberry-Hunt, J., Lick, D., & Hunt, R. (2018). Is Medical Education Ready for Generation Z?. Journal of graduate medical education, 10(4), 378–381. https://doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-18-00466.1

Hopkins L, Hampton BS, Abbott JF, et al. To the point: medical education, technology, and the millennial learner. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018;218(2):188-192. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2017.06.001


Talmon, G.A. Generation Z: What’s Next?. Med.Sci.Educ. 29, 9–11 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-019-00796-0



de Jong, P.G.M. Letter from the Editor-in-Chief. Med.Sci.Educ. 29, 1 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-019-00864-5






Linda Regan, Laura R. Hopson, Michael A. Gisondi, Jeremy Branzetti. (2019) Learning to learn: A qualitative study to uncover strategies used by Master Adaptive Learners in the planning of learning. Medical Teacher 41:11, pages 1252-1262.

Martin V. Pusic, Sally A. Santen, Michael Dekhtyar, Ann N. Poncelet, Nicole K. Roberts, Amy L. Wilson-Delfosse & William B. Cutrer (2018) Learning to balance efficiency and innovation for optimal adaptive expertise, Medical Teacher, 40:8, 820-827, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1485887

William B. Cutrer, Holly G. Atkinson, Erica Friedman, Nicole Deiorio, Larry D. Gruppen, Michael Dekhtyar & Martin Pusic (2018) Exploring the characteristics and context that allow Master Adaptive Learners to thrive, Medical Teacher, 40:8, 791-796, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1484560

Philip J. Kellman & Sally Krasne (2018) Accelerating expertise: Perceptual and adaptive learning technology in medical learning, Medical Teacher, 40:8, 797-802, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1484897

Maria Mylopoulos, Naomi Steenhof, Amit Kaushal & Nicole N. Woods (2018) Twelve tips for designing curricula that support the development of adaptive expertise, Medical Teacher, 40:8, 850-854, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1484082







Pollard, K.A., Oiknine, A.H., Files, B.T. et al. Level of immersion affects spatial learning in virtual environments: results of a three-condition within-subjects study with long intersession intervals. Virtual Reality (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00411-y

Wednesday, 24 June 2020

Medical Education Disrupted by Technology, What is Gained and Potentially Lost

Frontiers in Medical and Health Sciences Education 2020
"Medical Education Disrupted – Negativity or Creativity"
Date: November 27-28, 2020 (Friday and Saturday)
Venue: Cheung Kung Hai Conference Centre, G/F, William MW Mong Block
Faculty of Medicine Building, The University of Hong Kong
21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong




E-ruptions in Education: Symposium
Second Plenary Session
What’s Now?

This session looks at e-learning from a variety of perspectives and how it is influencing, transforming and disrupting conventional medical and health sciences education.

Medical Education Disrupted by Technology, What is Gained and Potentially Lost
Poh-Sun Goh

Medical Education and Professional Training is increasingly being assisted, mediated and augmented by technology, throughout the continuum of undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing medical education and professional development settings. This mirrors the impact of technology and digitalisation disrupting professional practice in other fields. The aim of this plenary presentation will be to critically examine what is gained, and potentially lost by the use of technology in medical education, through the use of case studies, and an examination of scholarship in this area. A review of basic principles underpinning traditional face to face education and training, the use of technology in medical education, and optimal ways to blend face to face with technology enhanced learning with be made. An examination of “newer” technologies used in medical education, including Virtual and Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, and the role of learning analytics will also be covered.To conclude, one approach to maximise the strengths and minimise the weaknesses of traditional education blended with technology enhanced learning will be proposed.


Medical Education Disrupted by Technology, What is Gained and Potentially Lost

➡ We gain, with digital content, digital platforms, and digital processes, accessibility, scale, visibility (and with analytics insight into the use, and usefulness of digital content, and the learning/training process, as well as its intermediate and final outcomes), and personalisation (with human and in the near future better AI assisted feedback, coaching and personalisation).

➡ We potentially lose, with increased use of digital content, digital platforms, and digital processes, the human element, the 'human touch', reduced empathy, privacy, cognitively overload the learner, and face the challenges of the 'digital divide', with unequal access to online learning and training opportunities.

➡ What is one approach to maximise the strengths, and minimise the weaknesses of traditional education blended with technology enhanced learning? One approach is to maximise awareness, provide training and faculty development, as well as promote digital literacy for both learners/students, faculty, as well as staff in administrative and leadership roles. Our aim is to optimise, and promote engagement with the digital content, learning and training process, in order to produce effective and efficient learning and training outcomes. To promote deep, rather than superficial learning. To encourage our students (and faculty) not only to be present, but to have presence, and be engaged as active participants and learners.

Role of the aware, trained, intentional scholarly educator, as course designer, content curator and creator, facilitator, editor, filter/screener/reviewer, instructor, guide, mentor, role model and coach. Impact of faculty development, and digital literacy training for learners/students and technology users.

                               Poh-Sun Goh, 8 August 2020 @ 1.31pm initial draft, updated at 6.38pm




Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1

Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. (2019). Using Technology to Nurture Core Human Values in Healthcare. MededPublish, 8, [3], 74, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000223.1

Goh PS., Sandars J (2019). Increasing tensions in the ubiquitous use of technology for medical education. Med Teach. Accepted for publication, 22 October 2018, published online 16 January 2019.
DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1540773

'Where we spend our time, what we spend our time on, and what we discuss are indicators of what we value, and what is valuable (to us).'
above quote from
Goh PS., (2016). 'The value and impact of eLearning or Technology enhanced learning from one perspective of a Digital Scholar', MedEdPublish, 5, [3], 31, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000117

Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16

Lee, W. W., Alkureishi, M. L., Wroblewski, K. E., Farnan, J. M., & Arora, V. M. (2017). Incorporating the human touch: piloting a curriculum for patient-centered electronic health record use. Medical education online, 22(1), 1396171. https://doi.org/10.1080/10872981.2017.1396171

Bullock A, Webb KTechnology in postgraduate medical education: a dynamic influence on learning?Postgraduate Medical Journal 2015;91:646-650.

Tim Goodchild & Ewen Speed (2019) Technology enhanced learning as transformative innovation: a note on the enduring myth of TEL, Teaching in Higher Education, 24:8, 948-963, DOI: 10.1080/13562517.2018.1518900

Kirkwood, A., & Price, L. (2014). Technology-enhanced learning and teaching in higher education: what is ‘enhanced’ and how do we know? A critical literature review. Learning, Media and Technology, 39, 36 - 6. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Technology-enhanced-learning-and-teaching-in-higher-Kirkwood-Price/023c00b1bcdf9dbf9b1bf8782e02a9b1898d9925

Pacifico Silva, H., Lehoux, P., Miller, F.A. et al. Introducing responsible innovation in health: a policy-oriented framework. Health Res Policy Sys 16, 90 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-018-0362-5

Lehoux, P., Roncarolo, F., Silva, H., Boivin, A., Denis, J., Hébert, R. (2019). What Health System Challenges Should Responsible Innovation in Health Address? Insights From an International Scoping Review. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 8(2), 63-75. doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2018.110

'Everyone can search for—and usually find—information on the Internet; the rewards now accrue to those who know what to do with that knowledge.'
'The value of teaching as a key differentiator is bound to rise as digitalisation drives forward the unbundling of educational content, delivery and accreditation in higher education.'
above quotes by
Prof. Dr. Andreas Schleicher, Director for the OECD’s Directorate of Education and Skills
from blog below

US universities under pressure to cut fees because of remote learning (Financial Times, accessed 25 July 2020)

Delgaty L, Fisher J, Thomson R, 2017, 'The ‘Dark Side’ of Technology in Medical Education', MedEdPublish, 6, [2], 19, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2017.000081

Terry, C., & Cain, J. (2016). The Emerging Issue of Digital Empathy. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 80(4), 58. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80458

The New Development of Technology Enhanced Learning
Concept, Research and Best Practices
Editors (view affiliations)
Ronghuai Huang KinshukNian-Shing Chen

The value of human touch in health care





'... technological innovations that reduce interpersonal contact are met in our society with a demand for increased contact ...the specialty has accepted and joined in the criticism of the medical establishment as too concerned with technology at the expense of human relationships.'
above quote from
Charles Christianson in Family Practice as an Anti-Establishment Movement, page 195 in
Family Medicine: The Maturing of a Discipline




'All successful innovation is the mixture of high tech and high touch.'
above quote from
Darren McKnight in High Tech, High Touch, page 28 in
Hitting the Innovation Jackpot: Practical Essays on Innovation



'Schools could embrace an older style of teaching used by British universities — the tutorial system — and adapt it for the online world.'
above quote from article below
College Courses Online Are Disappointing. Here’s How to Fix Them

'One challenge to authentic learning while working from home lies in the absence of a chance to learn informally. Physical offices enable workers to pick up knowledge and problem-solving skills through daily interactions.'
quoted from article below


The Informal Workplace Learning Experiences of Virtual Team Members: A Look at the Role of Collaborative Technologies
Jones, Frankie S.
Online Submission, Paper presented at the International Research Conference in the Americas of the Academy of Human Resource Development (Indianapolis, IN, Feb 28-Mar 4, 2007)

Zhao, Fang & Kemp, Linzi. (2012). Integrating Web 2.0-based informal learning with workplace training. Educational Media International. 49. 10.1080/09523987.2012.738015.

Decius, J, Schaper, N, Seifert, A. Informal workplace learning: Development and validation of a measure. Human Resource Development Quarterly. 2019; 30: 495– 535. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21368

'Getting information off the Internet is like taking a drink from a fire hydrant.'
Mitch Kapor

'Digital education is generating new learning opportunities as students engage in online, digital environments and as faculty change educational practices through the use of hybrid courses, personalized instruction, new collaboration models and a wide array of innovative, engaging learning strategies. Furthermore, a 21st century view of learner success requires students to not only be thoughtful consumers of digital content, but effective and collaborative creators of digital media, demonstrating competencies and communicating ideas through dynamic storytelling, data visualization and content curation.'
above quote from
David Goodrum, director of academic technology and information services, Oregon State University, in Campus Technology (page 3)







Alhumaid, Khadija. (2019). Four Ways Technology Has Negatively Changed Education. Journal of Educational and Social Research. 9. 10-20. 10.2478/jesr-2019-0049.




Google search for 'how to maximise the strengths and minimise the weaknesses of online learning'







Ambient AI And The Future Of Medicine


Measuring narrative engagement: The heart tells the story
Daniel C. Richardson, Nicole K. Griffin, Lara Zaki, Auburn Stephenson, Jiachen Yan, John Hogan, Jeremy I. Skipper, Joseph T. Devlin
bioRxiv 351148; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/351148


Cidota, M., Lukosch, S., Datcu, D. et al. Comparing the Effect of Audio and Visual Notifications on Workspace Awareness Using Head-Mounted Displays for Remote Collaboration in Augmented Reality. Augment Hum Res 1, 1 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41133-016-0003-x


Panel Discussion
Learner of the Present, Practitioners of the Future

How is the disruption in education going to affect future practice? Overseas and local educators and clinicians are going to share their thoughts and experiences.  The perspectives of both learners and practitioners will be explored.



Transformational change in the scholarship of medical education - Best Practice Session @ AMEE 2020: The Virtual Conference


Best Practice session at AMEE 2020: The Virtual Conference – 7-9 September 2020

Sustaining the move to online teaching and learning during and after the COVID-19 pandemic 


The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a huge global shift to online delivery of the curriculum, with many innovative approaches. Sustaining these changes to provide high quality teaching and learning using online approaches will require a transformational change in learners, educators and institutions. This change will be a challenge for all medical educators, in both high and low resource settings. An essential aspect of responding to this challenge will be a transformational change in the scholarship of medical education to ensure that rapid cycles of evaluation can inform best practice.

Chair - John


Transformational change in learners  (12 minutes) - Monika

Transformational change in educators and institutions  (12 minutes) - Kalyani

Transformational change in the scholarship of medical education (12 minutes) - John and Poh-Sun

 - Key areas to change and effective responses based on 'best practice' and examples eg from MedEdPublish

- Importance of rapid iterative cycles of evaluation to refine interventions through use of action research and educational design research, and rapid dissemination.

-Consider implications for providing evidence.

-Recommendations on 'best practice' and examples eg from MedEdPublish

- Session Padlet wall link 
(this open access online discussion space can be used by participants to post questions, and comment on points brought up during the session - to document this, and make this visible before, during and after the conference session) 

Made with Padlet

⏯ Segment presentation Slide Deck below

or click / tap on image above
⏯ Screencastify link for my presentation (Video and Audio)


Slide Deck for my presentation below

Sustaining the move to online teaching and learning during and after the Covid-19 pandemic - Transformational change in the scholarship of medical education (Slide Deck) from Poh-Sun Goh

Supplementary slide below

Technology transforming medical education and scholarship from Poh-Sun Goh




⏯ Opening quote below

Building a portfolio of academic scholarship and The academic cycle 
Goh Poh Sun (first draft on April 10th, 2016 at 1737hrs)

"The process of building a portfolio of academic scholarship requires attention to, as well as regular participation in and focus on an area of academic work; getting training, building experience, and developing an understanding of current and topical academic conversations in that area; by reading, attending major academic conferences, through conference presentations, presenting at symposia and workshops; developing ideas further and deepening insights through reflection and discourse; then continuing the academic cycle by getting feedback on these insights by progressively disseminating these ideas through case studies, reflection pieces and peer reviewed papers, both online and through traditional academic peer reviewed publications and conference presentations."

➡ Sustainable/sustaining implementation tip: For faculty, get training. For institutions, provide training (faculty development).

example of faculty development workshop below, and best practice session

⏯ Three (conceptual) definitions:

Three (conceptual) definitions:

➡ 'Best Practice is' - 'A technique or methodology that, through experience and research, has proven to reliably lead to a desired result'.
quoted from

➡ 'Digitalisation is' - 'Digitalisation is the incorporation of digital technologies into business/social processes, with the goal of improving them'.
quoted from

➡ 'Digital transformation is' - 'a change in how a firm employs digital technologies, to develop a new digital business model that helps to create and appropriate more value for the firm'.
quoted from
Peter C. Verhoef, Thijs Broekhuizen, Yakov Bart, Abhi Bhattacharya, John Qi Dong, Nicolai Fabian, Michael Haenlein. (2019) 'Digital transformation: A multidisciplinary reflection and research agenda',
Journal of Business Research,
ISSN 0148-2963, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.09.022.

- 'Digital transformation marks a radical rethinking of how an organization uses technology, people and processes to fundamentally change business performance'.
George Westerman
MIT principal research scientist
Author of Leading Digital: Turning Technology Into Business Transformation
quoted in

- 'Digital transformation is a foundational change in how an organization delivers value to its customers'.
Clint Boulton
quoted from






⏯ Three takeaways and three sustaining implementation tips:

Three takeaways:
Poh-Sun Goh

⏯First takeaway: Digital Content (for Teaching and Scholarship)

1. Digital content (created and curated), the web, software (apps) and mobile devices enable educators to connect with learners with much less resource constraints than earlier generations, much faster, and easier. Digital content includes digital artefacts and evidence of our scholarly efforts. Our scholarly output is visible, accessible, and assessable - both quantity and quality.

Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16

Expanded narrative for first takeaway below.

Technology enhanced learning, or eLearning.

Reflecting on my use of Technology in teaching, learning, and in faculty development today.

Key words which come to mind include ‘ease” of use, ‘expanding’ and ‘extending’ access, and my reach as a teacher, with students and trainees, and fellow teachers. To create, and curate content (with attribution), including graphics, video and multimedia. To work together, and collaborate.

There is great democratisation of access to, and understanding of how to use the tools and platforms available. We start off with digital content (our PowerPoint deck comes to mind), which can then be accessed, and shared, in multiple formats and forms.

➡ Sustainable/sustaining implementation tip: Focus on curating and creating reusable, granular and modular digital content accessible and assessable on online digital repositories - (some open access, some restricted access digital content following appropriate and accepted professional usage guidelines, including those for professional use, consent, privacy, and attribution/intellectual property). This includes digital artefacts and examples of our scholarly output, in digital portfolios.

The limiting factors are time, motivation, awareness, training - including in pedagogy, instructional design and design thinking, and an experimental, rapid improvement, scholarly and scholarship mindset, and mindfulness of not only the positive use of technology, but also the ‘dark’ side of technology use, and pitfalls in its use.

All this against a backdrop of ongoing rapid, exciting, exponential expansion of technology adoption and use by increasing numbers of individuals worldwide, with technology development, and innovative application of technology within, and outside education making the news on a daily basis. The excitement, and engagement I feel with technology use is due to many of the features and points made in Step 1 (section first posted on blogpost below).


⏯Second takeaway: Digital platforms (for Teaching and Scholarship)

2. Technology/Digitalisation enables rapid content curation, and much easier content creation, and dissemination, aided by low cost and open access platforms and tools which promote access, and visibility of our educational and training efforts. This includes digitalisation of the scholarly process. Indicators and metrics, visibility and access to intermediate and final outcomes of our scholarly activities to engage with, evaluate and assess.

Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558420

Expanded narrative for takeaway 2 below.

Digital Scholarship and Engagement - Indicators, Metrics, Value and Impact

eLearning or TEL(Technology Enhanced Learning) is increasingly being integrated into medical education and training, from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing education and lifelong learning settings, with increasing emphasis on blended and mobile learning, in the workplace and just-in-time settings. TEL with utilisation of digital content and engagement provides visibility of our teaching and training efforts as educators, showing ‘what we teach with, and assess on’ (Goh, 2016). TEL approaches can also be used to provide visibility and metrics of student engagement, as well as demonstrate intermediate and final outcomes of student learning (Goh & Sandars, 2016; Goh, 2017). TEL is increasing transforming medical education, going beyond substitution, augmentation and modification of learning - the ‘SAMR model’ (Puentedura, 2013). Reflective educators, and educational scholars have always sought to evaluate and assess the value and impact of their teaching and training efforts, and Digital Scholarship, with attention paid to data, indicators and metrics of engagement and output, can facilitate these efforts. Use of 'free', low cost, off the shelf, easy to use and accessible digital tools and platforms, combined with curated and created digital content repositories, by faculty who are 'digitally literate' and professional, facilitates adoption and scaling up of our scholarly efforts (Goh, 2018). This has direct benefits for faculty members during the academic appointment, appraisal and promotion process; for an academic community by making scholarly activities easily accessible, and for an institution by making academic and scholarly activities by faculty members both easily accessible and visible.
(above posted earlier on blogpost link below)

➡ Sustainable/sustaining implementation tip: Use open access and usable/easy to use low cost technology tools and platforms. Know what tech is available to faculty and students. Which can be used to support our teaching, and scholarly efforts.


⏯Third takeaway: Digital processes (for Teaching and Scholarship)

3. Rapid cycle, by design, iterative, cumulative educational and scholarly efforts assisted and augmented by technology promotes academic discourse and peer critique and feedback, building and adding to communities of practice as educators, and scholars. Technology enhances and offers the potential to transform educational scholarship.

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000097.1


Expanded narrative for takeaway 3 below.

Our creativity, and innovation efforts are assisted by technology to enable rapid cycle action research, informed by design thinking principles. Creativity, Curation, Transfer to Practice, and Digital Teaching (with learning analytics making the educational and training process as well as intermediate and final outcomes of learning and training visible, accessible and available for evaluation) have analogies with accepted categories of the Scholarship of Discovery, Integration, Application and Teaching. By being open, accessible and assessable, technology facilitates, enables, and augments both traditional and newer forms of scholarship, and provides visibility and evidence of this for academic review and recognition. The COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated the impact of open sharing of clinical and educational case studies, and clinical practices (both effective, and less so) in a collaborative, networked world - for example https://www.nejm.org/coronavirus (NEJM Covid-19 resources) and https://amee.org/covid-19 (AMEE Covid-19 resources, including interactive webinars, and rapid open access post publication peer review online journal articles in MedEdPublish). This facilitates peer and academic critique, commentary and possibilities to learn from, and add to the efforts of individuals, groups and societies, with impact illustrated vividly and openly in our public health response to the Covid-19 pandemic; and rapid, usable, useful and effective widespread implementation of online learning and training.

➡ Sustainable/sustaining implementation tip: What before Why and How. Know purpose/outcomes, pedagogy, content and technology. Practices founded on empirical observation, experience, feedback, data, evidence, evaluation (of outcomes and impact) and scholarship. Digital artefacts and examples of our scholarly output within digital portfolios can be systematically, progressively and cumulatively assembled, following accepted traditional and newer criteria (quantitative and qualitative) for assessing and evaluating academic output, and impact, producing a coherent narrative and portfolio of academic work. Digitalisation and technology facilitates and potentially transforms the process, outputs and outcomes of our academic work.


'Online viewership of an educational scholars digital output is a proxy for quantitative impact; and the type and extent of dissemination and discussion a proxy for qualitative impact; with similarities to traditional scholarship. To illustrate this ... '
'Digital platforms have the added advantage of augmenting and accelerating the dissemination and potential critique of educational ideas, by promoting access and leveraging on the strength, connectivity and reach of the internet. From this perspective, the volume of digital viewership and downloads is evidence of the value, and usefulness of online content. The type, nature, extent and depth of online (similar to traditional) dissemination and discussion of digital content is evidence of the value and worth of the digital content.'
above quotes from Digital Scholarship section, article below
Goh PS, 2016, 'The value and impact of eLearning or Technology enhanced learning from one perspective of a Digital Scholar', MedEdPublish, 5, [3], 31, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000117

for example

⏯Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1
(over 10,200 views, and 9 reviews, and 23 citations on Google Scholar as of 11 August 2020)

⏯Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1
(over 10,000 views, and 7 reviews, and 12 citations on Google Scholar as of 11 August 2020)

⏯Liaw SY, Augustin CG, Ying L, Tan SC, Lim WS, Goh PS. Multiuser Virtual Worlds in Healthcare Education: A Systematic Review. Nurse Education Today. Volume 65, June 2018, Pages 136-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.01.006 Accepted for publication on 11 January 2018, available online 2 February 2018).
(22 citations on Google Scholar, 13 citations on Scopus, PlumX Metrics of paper as of 18 July 2020, more about https://plumanalytics.com/learn/about-metrics/)

⏯Goh, P.S. The value and impact of eLearning or Technology enhanced learning from one perspective of a Digital Scholar. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:31. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
(over 3250 views, and 3 reviews, and 4 citations on Google Scholar as of 18 July 2020)

⏯Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16
(over 1,100 views, 18 citations on Google Scholar, 12 CrossRef citations, Altmetric score 7 as of 18 July 2020)

⏯Dong C, Goh PS. Twelve tips for the effective use of videos in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Feb; 37(2):140-5.
(over 3,500 views, 83 citations on Google Scholar, 45 CrossRef citations, Altmetric score 25 as of 5 August 2020)

(over 34,000 views on SlideShare as of 12 July 2020)

(over 22,000 views on SlideShare as of 12 July 2020)

(over 15,000 views on SlideShare as of 12 July 2020)

(over 9,500 views on SlideShare as of 12 July 2020)

(over 9,200 views on SlideShare as of 12 July 2020)

(over 6,200 views on SlideShare as of 12 July 2020)

Google Scholar (Dr Poh Sun Goh)


MHPE (2009-2012). Faculty development program at MEU and CenMED, NUS (since 2010); presentations, workshops and symposia at APMEC (since 2011) and AMEE (since 2012); workshop at Faculty Development Conference in Helsinki, Finland (2017); as invited faculty for SIF program and SEARAME conference in Colombo, Sri Lanka (2014); medical education conferences in Kaohsiung, Taiwan (2015); closing Pecha Kucha session at AMEE2016, BarcelonaSpain (2016); Jakarta, Indonesia (2016, and 2019); Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2018); Tokyo, Japan (2018); Basel, Switzerland (2018); Taipei, Taiwan (2018); visiting professor in Almaty, Kazakhstan (2015); plenary speaker, IAMSE 2020, Denver, USA, and Hong Kong (2020). FAMEE (2017).


⏯ Closing comments and end of segment exercise

➡ 'Digitalisation is' - 'Digitalisation is the incorporation of digital technologies into business/social processes, with the goal of improving them'.
quoted from

Digitalisation can:

Show what we teach with and assess on.
Show how we teach, and students learn.
Show outcomes and impact of our educational and training efforts.
Allow us to engage in and demonstrate scholarship in a visible, accessible and assessable manner.

                                         Poh-Sun Goh, 28 June 2020 @ 0849am

Digital Scholarship is:

"The use of technology to support educational scholarship has been called digital scholarship" (Goh and Sandars, 2019)
Goh PS, Sandars J, 2019, 'Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world', MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1

Digital Scholarship to make (our efforts) visible, accessible, and assessable

Digital scholarship, to add to academic discourse, and get recognised for this
(can be disseminated and scaled up on Social Media)


#IAMSE20 Plenary: Medical Educator Roles of the Future
see below




above from

see more on


below example of outcomes from faculty development workshop on Technology enhanced learning (TEL) or eLearning

End of Session Exercise
Illustrated below, with narrated slide audio clip link below (Using AVR audio note taking free App for IOS platform, one of many for illustration. Note Android has similar Apps.)

for above slide

above example of outcomes from faculty development workshop on eLearning or TEL
more on link below


⏯ Further reading



⏯Sandars J., Goh PS. (2020) 'How to make it work: a framework for rapid research to inform evidence-based decision –making about the implementation of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 154, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000154.1

⏯Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000097.1

⏯Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1

⏯Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1

'Digital analytic metrics provide data on the number of views and links to published online content, which can be directly related to the size of the online audience (interest), and usefulness of the content (audience size, and recommendation). This data can be used to assess the impact of digital scholarship.'
above quote from
⏯Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1

⏯Sandars, J., & Goh, P.-S. (2020). Design Thinking in Medical Education: The Key Features and Practical Application. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 7, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120520926518

Weller, M. (2011) The Digital Scholar: How Technology Is Transforming Scholarly Practice. London: Bloomsbury Academic. http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781849666275
see Chapter 1: Digital, Networked and Open
and Chapter 4: The Nature of Scholarship
and Chapter 11: Reward and Tenure

Susanne Pelger & Maria Larsson (2018) Advancement towards the scholarship of teaching and learning through the writing of teaching portfolios, International Journal for Academic Development, 23:3, 179-191, DOI: 10.1080/1360144X.2018.1435417

Scholarly Communication on the Academic Social Web (preview in Google Books)
see section on Digital Scholarship and Scholarly Collaboration

Social Media in Academia: Networked Scholars (preview in Google Books)
see section on Pressures amongst Scholars for Scholarship to change


Workshop for the 4th International Conference on Faculty Development held jointly with AMEE 2017. Submission ID: 73

Titled: Modular Blended eFaculty Development using Blogs and Instagram


Examples of modular learning from business education:
(how ideas from the business literature can inform, add to and sustain our activities and educators and educational scholars)


Google search for 'Alexander Osterwalder’s Canvas and applying it to top real-life cases'



then do further key word, key idea online searches, example below










⏯ Analytics