Sunday, 11 April 2021

The vision of transformation in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic - Keynote Presentation, KSME 2021

37th Annual Meeting of the Korean Society for Medical Education (KSME 2021)
Theme: Medical Education in the Era of Pandemic
Date: June 03 (Thu) - 04 (Fri.), 2021
Venue: Fully Virtual Conference

Program
Day 1 (June 03)
09:00~9:30 Opening Ceremony
09:30~10:30 Keynote Speech
Title: The vision of transformation in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic
Speaker: Poh-Sun Goh


Key Themes: Medical Education - what it is, brief history, its value proposition, current practice, possible futures (potential, anticipated).


Key Words: Strategic Thinking, Vision, Value Proposition, Digital Transformation, Digital Disruption, Medical Education, Future Thinking, Design Thinking, Innovation, eLearning, Technology enhanced Learning (TeL), COVID-19, Disruption.


Key Takeaways: Start by being Open, Observing, and being Objective. Why, before What, and How. Needs and Requirements, Current-Anticipated-Projected-Aspirational, should drive (Omni-channel = Physical + Digital, 'Phygital', or 'Clicks-and-Bricks') Transformation.


'Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again, but expecting different results.' - Rita Mae Brown (misattributed to Albert Einstein) https://www.businessinsider.com/misattributed-quotes-2013-10 (see point 12.)


Further Reading:

Goh, PS. 'Medical Educator Roles of the Future'. Medical Science Educator. Online publication 30 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01086-w

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1

David L. Rogers. The Digital Transformation Playbook: Rethink Your Business for the Digital Age (Columbia Business School Publishing) Hardcover – April 5, 2016

Chalmers Brothers. (2005). Language and the pursuit of Happiness. New Possibilities Press. 
(The key message from the book, relevant to my topic, and theme of the conference, is that our language, our choice of words, reflects and influences 'how' we 'look' at things, situations, and people; and has a powerful influence on how we en-'Vision' (our) future).

George Leonard. (1992). Mastery - The Keys to Success and Long-Term Fulfillment. 
(The key message from this book, relevant to my topic, and theme of the conference, is that 'implementing' and making long term, sustained, and sustainable value and impact in our practice requires a 'Mastery' mental orientation, and mindset. )



This presentation builds on earlier presentations and preparation for upcoming presentations (below):

(upcoming Focused Session, IAMSE 2021)

(Technology Enhanced Learning Workshop, CenMED, NUS, 2021)

(University of Nottingham MMedSci in Medical Education TEL Panel Q&A Session)

(panel discussion, APMEC 2021)



(plenary presentation, FIMHSE 2020)

(best practice session, AMEE 2020)

(plenary presentation, IAMSE 2020)


Saturday, 20 March 2021

#TeLMedEd #@CenMed

#Learning #Technology #TechnologyEnhancedLearning #TeL 

#FunctionalApproachNotTechnicalOne #WhyBeforeWhatAndHow 

#LearningAndTraining #CommunitiesOfPractice #SocialPresence

#MicroLearning #Stackable #BrainExperiences #MindUnderstands

#MedEd Skills, #MedEd Core Knowledge

#JourneyIsGoal #TrainingIsGoal

#MicroScholarship #DigitalScholarship

Poh-Sun Goh

21 March 2021 0338am, Singapore Time


Hello.

Welcome to this (upcoming) TeL (Technology enhanced Learning) Workshop @ CenMed

The preparation required before the workshop should take no more than 60 minutes. Which can be split up into three 20 minute sessions, taken say during a meal break, where the first 5 minutes is spent focused on a learning/teaching challenge-task, followed by 10 minutes review of material (online, on your device - mobile, tablet, laptop or workstation), with the last 5 minutes crafting a no more than a one short paragraph description of your takeaway from this task, how you would 'apply' this in your setting - how you would 'use' technology, to teach (and learn). Please 'write' this down (this one short paragraph), and either take a screenshot of this, or a 'digital photograph' of your handwritten one paragraph note, after each task below - as a digital record of the outcome of each task (for you), and to share, and develop further, during the workshop. (This paragraph x3 for the three tasks, is an intermediate outcome, and personal, and personalised, output for each task).


Task 1

What is Learning? Teaching? What do you teach with? How do you teach? How do you know learning has taken place?

https://www.instagram.com/p/BPOF-mTByKL/?igshid=1ja734mx8ide4

Goh, PS. 'Medical Educator Roles of the Future'. Medical Science Educator. Online publication 30 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01086-w

Goh, P.S. eLearning in Medical Education - Costs and Value Add. The Asia Pacific Scholar (TAPS). Published online: 2 May, TAPS 2018, 3(2), 58-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29060/TAPS.2018-3-2/PV1073


Task 2

What is 'Technology'? What is traditional ('live', on-site, in-person, pen and paper, 'bricks and mortar') learning? What is eLearning or TeL? Blended or 'hybrid' learning?

https://www.instagram.com/p/BOJEMQcBemX/?igshid=wqssjty8gk9f

Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000105


Task 3

Think of a current teaching, or learning challenge you have. In your setting. How do you currently teach?

Why (describe the thought, selection, and design process) do you do this?

https://www.instagram.com/p/BOJEGHChOOs/?igshid=1su5bj13cskip

https://www.instagram.com/p/BPTacPgBk9I/?igshid=996d0u1kb7j3

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/the-first-step-in-technology-enhanced-learning-239123793

https://www.slideshare.net/mobile/dnrgohps/everything-i-have-learnt-about-elearning


See you at the session (virtually).

With warmest regards,

Poh-Sun


⬇️
Opening comments for #TeLMedEd Workshop #@CenMed
⬇️
Below section first posted on 
⬇️
One sentence takeaway - 
Poh-Sun Goh
22 February 2021 @ 1955hrs
"Hungry students, trained teachers, know (and use) what is available (and at hand)."

⬆️
🔄
⬇️
eLearning or Technology enhanced Learning
- What it is not, and 'is'
by
Poh-Sun Goh
22 February 2021 @ 1836hrs, Singapore Time
(inspired by a long hot shower)

A 'book' is a 'technology', but alone is 'not' learning.
A 'tablet', mobile device, wearable computing interface/wearable tech, laptop or desktop computer is 'technology', but alone is 'not' learning.

Access to, or visiting a 'library' is 'not' learning.
Access to 'online' digital content is (in and of itself) 'not' learning.

Learning is a physiological (cognitive) process, which requires a combination of 'hunger' or 'desire' to learn, active 'interaction' with content, and a learning or training process (ideally following a deliberate practice with feedback and reflection, and mastery training paradigm), informed by learning science, instructional design principles, pedagogically and technologically literate and trained instructors and teachers (including for clinical practice domain experts), with students and trainees undergoing a stepwise, progressive, cumulative, both to the task and for the task, but ultimately a lifelong, self-directed, self-motivated (including knowing when and how to seek both human and increasingly AI guided coaching and instruction) educational developmental process.

🔄
⬆️

⬇️

Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1




⬆️

above from

Sunday, 14 March 2021

M3 Tutorial on Friday 19 March 2021 @ 1pm

⬇️
Email message to M3 students on Monday, 15 March 2021
⬇️
Dear M3 SUR CG 39-44 students,
For the Radiology session  “Acute Abdomen”, this will be a combined self-study session of online content (see below), followed by a one hour scheduled live session (on Zoom) this Friday 19 March 2021, where one student from each clinical group (please discuss amongst yourselves and nominate one volunteer who will present key messages and illustrations from the self-study content to all participants during the live session), followed by with 24 hours to post Q & A after session on Entrada.  Please refer to Entrada and visit the blog created by A/Prof Goh Poh Sun.
Remarks : One hour preparation before live session. One hour live presentation - pick one from the following 7 categories of cases. Post session Q & A on Entrada.
As there are 6 clinical groups, please make 6 difference choices, so that we have 6 presentations, one from each clinical group.

Radiology Bowel Perforation
Radiology Bowel Obstruction
Radiology Acute Appendicitis
Radiology Acute Cholecystitis
Radiology Acute Diverticulitis
Radiology Acute Pancreatitis
Radiology Colon Cancer

Best regards
Poh Sun

(This tutorial process has been iteratively refined over the last year, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Learning takes place essentially as a process of self study, in each of you individually. Followed by active discussion and use of this material in our clinical practice. For this session, we will test and discuss your understanding during the live session this Friday. My role is to present compact, usable content, that you can both review and use, and come back to, as and when you require in the future. For those of you who are interested in how this tutorial process has been refined over the last year with previous tutorial groups please click to tap on this link - https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/01/m3-tutorial-on-friday-5-february-2021.html)
⬇️
Start here with background info and learning tips
⬇️

Some tips to increase your learning and training effectiveness and efficiency:
Poh-Sun Goh

1. Reflect on the purpose of your medical education and expected outcomes of your undergraduate education and clinical training process.
2. Your current clinical exposure to case based learning in the emergency department, wards, and clinics-outpatient settings builds on a foundation of pre-clinical basic sciences in year 1 and 2 of the medical program (with anatomy and pathology particularly applicable to the interpretation of radiology / imaging studies of your patients).
3. For the abdomen, think about what anatomical structures lie within the area of interest/clinical presentation, or may present with the clinical symptoms and signs exhibited by your patients. Ask yourself what radiological investigation you might request or review in order to make a diagnosis - to rule in, or rule out potential clinical diagnosis. Radiology helps you to "see living anatomy and pathology" in your patients. Thus confirm or exclude diagnosis. Keep in mind that early disease may have very subtle of "negative" imaging during the early stages of clinically symptomatic disease.
4. Review the Radiology studies for your patients. Ask yourself why certain investigations were performed. And in what order.
5. Correlate imaging findings with your clinical observations. Do they make sense, correlate with clinical findings, or do you have to entertain alternative diagnostic possibilities?
6. Use textbooks and a wide variety of online resources to improve your diagnostic and interpretative skills. Practice, practice, practice with reflection and feedback, using a range of resources, to increase your exposure to the variety and spectrum of clinical and imaging findings, both normal and abnormal, from typical, to less common and atypical (as you progress to increase your experience and mastery of clinical practice, and improve your knowledge and skills from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing professional development and lifelong learning settings).
7. Compare and contrast is one of the simplest and most effective methods to learn to recognise and differentiate between normal and abnormal XRs and scans. Review a series of normal XRs and scans, and then do side by side comparison between examples of normal, normal and abnormal, and examples of abnormal XRs and scans. 

https://effectiviology.com/interleaving/ (mixed practice or interleaving superior to blocked practice)

and



⬇️
Below section is guided learning path (Option 1)
⬇️

Session guide (one learning path) - start with 'Tips' section above, then explore material section below, all on open access websites. One path is to start with 'a curriculum', then explore an approach to the AXR, both normal, and abnormal. Followed by review of common pathology presenting as an acute abdomen on CT scans. Start with bowel perforation on erect CXR, and AXR, unknown cases, for example here, focusing on appearance of free air, and 'Rigler's sign' on AXR. Then move on to examples of acute appendicitisacute cholecystitisacute diverticulitis (focusing on the similarities between these three pathologies, and taking note of differences between normal and abnormal structures, paying attention to the wall of the structure, and the adjacent fat in particular). Then review bowel obstruction, on the AXR, and CT scan, paying attention to the strengths and weaknesses of the AXR, and added value of a CT scan - pay attention to visibility of bowel segment which is dilated proximal to obstructing point, and cause of obstruction shown on CT).

⬇️
Below section is alternative exploratory path (Option 2)
Starting with background information, and "curriculum"
⬇️



⬇️
Below section for Google images search for thematic cases (for practice review, and click through for additional information for selected cases)
⬇️

Radiology Colon Cancer


⬇️
Section below for self-directed learning



👁
Google and Entrada analytics for current tutorial
👀
⬇️



Thursday, 28 January 2021

M3 Tutorial on Friday 5 February 2021 @ 1245pm

⬇️
Email message to M3 students on Friday, 29 January 2021
⬇️
Dear M3 SUR CG 45-50 students,
For the 1st Radiology session  “Acute Abdomen”, this will be a self-study session of online content with 24 hours to post Q & A after session.  Please refer to Entrada and visit the blog created by A/Prof Goh Poh Sun.
Remarks : No Live zoom session
Best regards

(This tutorial process has been iteratively refined over the last year, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Learning takes place essentially as a process of self study, in each of you individually. My role is to present compact, usable content, that you can both review and use, and come back to, as and when you require in the future. For those of you who are interested in how this tutorial process has been refined over the last year with previous tutorial groups please click to tap on this link - https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/12/m3-tutorial-on-friday-11-december-2020.html)

⬇️
Start here with background info and learning tips
⬇️

Some tips to increase your learning and training effectiveness and efficiency:
Poh-Sun Goh

1. Reflect on the purpose of your medical education and expected outcomes of your undergraduate education and clinical training process.
2. Your current clinical exposure to case based learning in the emergency department, wards, and clinics-outpatient settings builds on a foundation of pre-clinical basic sciences in year 1 and 2 of the medical program (with anatomy and pathology particularly applicable to the interpretation of radiology / imaging studies of your patients).
3. For the abdomen, think about what anatomical structures lie within the area of interest/clinical presentation, or may present with the clinical symptoms and signs exhibited by your patients. Ask yourself what radiological investigation you might request or review in order to make a diagnosis - to rule in, or rule out potential clinical diagnosis. Radiology helps you to "see living anatomy and pathology" in your patients. Thus confirm or exclude diagnosis. Keep in mind that early disease may have very subtle of "negative" imaging during the early stages of clinically symptomatic disease.
4. Review the Radiology studies for your patients. Ask yourself why certain investigations were performed. And in what order.
5. Correlate imaging findings with your clinical observations. Do they make sense, correlate with clinical findings, or do you have to entertain alternative diagnostic possibilities?
6. Use textbooks and a wide variety of online resources to improve your diagnostic and interpretative skills. Practice, practice, practice with reflection and feedback, using a range of resources, to increase your exposure to the variety and spectrum of clinical and imaging findings, both normal and abnormal, from typical, to less common and atypical (as you progress to increase your experience and mastery of clinical practice, and improve your knowledge and skills from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing professional development and lifelong learning settings).
7. Compare and contrast is one of the simplest and most effective methods to learn to recognise and differentiate between normal and abnormal XRs and scans. Review a series of normal XRs and scans, and then do side by side comparison between examples of normal, normal and abnormal, and examples of abnormal XRs and scans. 

https://effectiviology.com/interleaving/ (mixed practice or interleaving superior to blocked practice)

and



⬇️
Below section is guided learning path (Option 1)
⬇️

Session guide (one learning path) - start with 'Tips' section above, then explore material section below, all on open access websites. One path is to start with 'a curriculum', then explore an approach to the AXR, both normal, and abnormal. Followed by review of common pathology presenting as an acute abdomen on CT scans. Start with bowel perforation on erect CXR, and AXR, unknown cases, for example here, focusing on appearance of free air, and 'Rigler's sign' on AXR. Then move on to examples of acute appendicitisacute cholecystitisacute diverticulitis (focusing on the similarities between these three pathologies, and taking note of differences between normal and abnormal structures, paying attention to the wall of the structure, and the adjacent fat in particular). Then review bowel obstruction, on the AXR, and CT scan, paying attention to the strengths and weaknesses of the AXR, and added value of a CT scan - pay attention to visibility of bowel segment which is dilated proximal to obstructing point, and cause of obstruction shown on CT).

⬇️
Below section is alternative exploratory path (Option 2)
Starting with background information, and "curriculum"
⬇️



⬇️
Below section for Google images search for thematic cases (for practice review, and click through for additional information for selected cases)
⬇️

Radiology Colon Cancer


⬇️
Section below for self-directed learning



👁
Google analytics for current tutorial
👀
⬇️







Am using pair of mobile phones (iPhones), Zoom (app platform), and WiFi 
for 'live' Q and A (17 February 2021 at 1300hrs) - flip from front and back facing mobile phone
cameras for 'face to face' Q and A to 'illustrate' content on 'mobile' (customised tutorial) web-page

Sunday, 10 January 2021

#MedEd Skills, #MedEd Core Knowledge

#MedEd Skills, #MedEd Core Knowledge

🔄

1. Growth Mindset and Curiosity

including Openness - OAR (Observation, Action, Results - 1st and 2nd order Learning) - #InfinitePossibilities #Infinite #Possibilities #Limitless

Chapter 5 - 'Language and the pursuit of Happiness' by Chalmers Brothers - titled "My Favourite Model: Observer-Action-Results." 

"There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so." - William Shakespeare

“You cannot travel within and stand still without”  — As A Man Thinketh by James Allen

http://jamesallen.wwwhubs.com/think.htm

“Do or do not. There is no try.” Yoda quote

https://medium.com/thrive-global/8-powerful-quotes-from-yoda-the-og-wellness-guru-ce03db397749

🔄

https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/future-of-work/the-most-fundamental-skill-intentional-learning-and-the-career-advantage

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2021/01/new-tech-2021.html

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2021/02/theslightedgebook-thecompoundeffectbook.html

Lifelong learning

https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20210222-how-a-beginners-mindset-can-help-you-learn-anything

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/how-to-produce-and-become-a-lifelong-learners

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/09/technology-enhanced-learning-in-medical.html

🔄

2. Understanding Learning Science - Awareness, Able to recall, use and Apply

Goh, PS. 'Medical Educator Roles of the Future'. Medical Science Educator. Online publication 30 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01086-w

https://www.learningscientists.org/downloadable-materials

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2020/12/deep-reads-recommendations-for-my.html

🔄

3. Get training - Content (Knowledge, Skills, Mindsets/Approaches), Pedagogy, Technology

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/03/technology-enhanced-learning-cenmed.html

Technology is not a separate activity, but is integral, and integrated into how we learn, and practice (even analogue, "old school" traditional medical education and professional practice relies on, and integrates the use of technology, from mobile devices/phones to access information and communicate, to sensors and monitors linked to a digital network, and "intranet" and "internet" enabled local and global platforms).

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/12/tel-in-meded-during-covid-19-looking.html

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000097.1 https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3116

🔄

4. Teach and mentor colleagues - the best way to deepen our own insights, and practice is to teach others, in a scholarly manner (based on, and informed by evidence, best practices, and published literature)

"See one, do one, and teach"

Kotsis, S. V., & Chung, K. C. (2013). Application of the "see one, do one, teach one" concept in surgical training. Plastic and reconstructive surgery, 131(5), 1194–1201. https://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e318287a0b3

🔄

5. Engage in (Digital) Scholarship - to document, disseminate, collaborate and continue to grow and develop and grow professionally

Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1 https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/10/micro-scholarship-and-digital.html

🔄

6. Resilient, Adaptable, Agile

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/07/training-in-digital-literacy-and.html

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/10/agile-learning-in-healthcare.html

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/10/innovation.html

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/11/covid-19-and-adoption-of-technology.html

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/12/tel-in-meded-during-covid-19-looking.html

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/12/telehealth-and-tel-in-meded-reimagining.html

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/12/video-conferencing-as-platform.html

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2021/01/innovation-in-medical-education-faculty.html

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2021/01/new-tech-2021.html

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2021/01/habits-daily-regular-recurrent.html

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2020/12/deep-reads-recommendations-for-my.html

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2020/12/the-second-curve-charles-handy.html

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2020/10/explore-build-reinvent-and-repeat-life.html

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2020/11/life-hacks.html

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2020/12/tempo-giusto.html

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2020/12/travel.html

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2020/12/thoreau.html

https://pohsungoh.blogspot.com/2021/01/seasons-cycles.html

🔄

7. Institutional Change

https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/organization/our-insights/organizing-for-the-future-nine-keys-to-becoming-a-future-ready-company

Sunday, 6 December 2020

M3 Tutorial on Friday 11 December 2020 @ 1245pm


Please spend you allocated one hour curricular time as illustrated above.

⬇️
Email message to M3 students on Monday, 6 December 2020
⬇️
Dear M3 SUR CG 14-19 students,
For the 1st Radiology session  “Acute Abdomen”, this will be a self-study session of online content with 24 hours to post Q & A after session.  Please refer to Entrada and visit the blog created by A/Prof Goh Poh Sun.
Remarks : No Live zoom session
Best regards

(This tutorial process has been iteratively refined over the last year, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Learning takes place essentially as a process of self study, in each of you individually. My role is to present compact, usable content, that you can both review and use, and come back to, as and when you require in the future. For those of you who are interested in how this tutorial process has been refined over the last year with previous tutorial groups please click to tap on this link - https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/06/interactive-m3-radiology-tutorials.html)

⬇️
⬇️
Email message to M3 students on Friday, 29 January 2021
⬇️
Dear M3 SUR CG 45-50 students,
For the 1st Radiology session  “Acute Abdomen”, this will be a self-study session of online content with 24 hours to post Q & A after session.  Please refer to Entrada and visit the blog created by A/Prof Goh Poh Sun.
Remarks : No Live zoom session
Best regards

(This tutorial process has been iteratively refined over the last year, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Learning takes place essentially as a process of self study, in each of you individually. My role is to present compact, usable content, that you can both review and use, and come back to, as and when you require in the future. For those of you who are interested in how this tutorial process has been refined over the last year with previous tutorial groups please click to tap on this link - https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/06/interactive-m3-radiology-tutorials.html)

⬇️
Start here with background info and learning tips
⬇️

Some tips to increase your learning and training effectiveness and efficiency:
Poh-Sun Goh

1. Reflect on the purpose of your medical education and expected outcomes of your undergraduate education and clinical training process.
2. Your current clinical exposure to case based learning in the emergency department, wards, and clinics-outpatient settings builds on a foundation of pre-clinical basic sciences in year 1 and 2 of the medical program (with anatomy and pathology particularly applicable to the interpretation of radiology / imaging studies of your patients).
3. For the abdomen, think about what anatomical structures lie within the area of interest/clinical presentation, or may present with the clinical symptoms and signs exhibited by your patients. Ask yourself what radiological investigation you might request or review in order to make a diagnosis - to rule in, or rule out potential clinical diagnosis. Radiology helps you to "see living anatomy and pathology" in your patients. Thus confirm or exclude diagnosis. Keep in mind that early disease may have very subtle of "negative" imaging during the early stages of clinically symptomatic disease.
4. Review the Radiology studies for your patients. Ask yourself why certain investigations were performed. And in what order.
5. Correlate imaging findings with your clinical observations. Do they make sense, correlate with clinical findings, or do you have to entertain alternative diagnostic possibilities?
6. Use textbooks and a wide variety of online resources to improve your diagnostic and interpretative skills. Practice, practice, practice with reflection and feedback, using a range of resources, to increase your exposure to the variety and spectrum of clinical and imaging findings, both normal and abnormal, from typical, to less common and atypical (as you progress to increase your experience and mastery of clinical practice, and improve your knowledge and skills from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing professional development and lifelong learning settings).
7. Compare and contrast is one of the simplest and most effective methods to learn to recognise and differentiate between normal and abnormal XRs and scans. Review a series of normal XRs and scans, and then do side by side comparison between examples of normal, normal and abnormal, and examples of abnormal XRs and scans. 

https://effectiviology.com/interleaving/ (mixed practice or interleaving superior to blocked practice)

and



⬇️
Below section is guided learning path (Option 1)
⬇️

Session guide (one learning path) - start with 'Tips' section above, then explore material section below, all on open access websites. One path is to start with 'a curriculum', then explore an approach to the AXR, both normal, and abnormal. Followed by review of common pathology presenting as an acute abdomen on CT scans. Start with bowel perforation on erect CXR, and AXR, unknown cases, for example here, focusing on appearance of free air, and 'Rigler's sign' on AXR. Then move on to examples of acute appendicitisacute cholecystitisacute diverticulitis (focusing on the similarities between these three pathologies, and taking note of differences between normal and abnormal structures, paying attention to the wall of the structure, and the adjacent fat in particular). Then review bowel obstruction, on the AXR, and CT scan, paying attention to the strengths and weaknesses of the AXR, and added value of a CT scan - pay attention to visibility of bowel segment which is dilated proximal to obstructing point, and cause of obstruction shown on CT).

⬇️
Below section is alternative exploratory path (Option 2)
Starting with background information, and "curriculum"
⬇️



⬇️
Below section for Google images search for thematic cases (for practice review, and click through for additional information for selected cases)
⬇️

Radiology Colon Cancer


⬇️
Section below for self-directed learning



👁
Google analytics for current tutorial
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Sunday, 22 November 2020

Using Social Media in Medical Education

Sterling M, Leung P, Wright D, Bishop TF. The Use of Social Media in Graduate Medical Education: A Systematic Review. Academic Medicine : Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. 2017 Jul;92(7):1043-1056. DOI: 10.1097/acm.0000000000001617. 

https://europepmc.org/article/med/28225466

Guraya S. Y. (2016). The Usage of Social Networking Sites by Medical Students for Educational Purposes: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review. North American journal of medical sciences, 8(7), 268–278. https://doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.187131

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982355/

Latif, M. Z., Hussain, I., Saeed, R., Qureshi, M. A., & Maqsood, U. (2019). Use of Smart Phones and Social Media in Medical Education: Trends, Advantages, Challenges and Barriers. Acta informatica medica : AIM : journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia & Herzegovina : casopis Drustva za medicinsku informatiku BiH, 27(2), 133–138. https://doi.org/10.5455/aim.2019.27.133-138

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6688444/

Rajendran R, Joena V. Effectiveness of social media as a medical teaching tool. Int J Med Res Rev 2017;5(04):381-385. doi:10.17511/ijmrr. 2017.i04.02.

https://ijmrr.medresearch.in/index.php/ijmrr/article/view/854/1562

Whyte W, Hennessy C, 2017, 'Social Media use within medical education: A systematic review to develop a pilot questionnaire on how social media can be best used at BSMS', MedEdPublish, 6, [2], 21, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2017.000083

https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/984

https://www.bemecollaboration.org/Published+Reviews/

https://elearning.scranton.edu/resource/business-leadership/top-5-ways-social-media-is-used-by-healthcare-professionals

What is social media, why should health professionals care and how does one engage effectively?Anderson N1. Swiss Sports & Exercise Medicine. 2017, Vol. 65 Issue 4, p14-19. 6p. (Review)