Sunday, 23 May 2021

#Categories of Scholarship in Medical Education #Scholarship in MedEd #Micro-Scholarship

Scholarship of Practice/Digital Scholarship - Open, Accessible, Available for Reflection, Evaluation and Peer Review, to be Critiqued, and Built Upon

'Micro-Scholarship' - 'Document (each and every) individual 'step' taken as part of curating, creating, innovating, discovering, integrating, applying, teaching and professional practice as an academic scholar in Medical Education / Health Professions Education and Training', Poh-Sun Goh, 25 May 2021, 1255am, Singapore Time

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/05/buildingblocksofscholarship-in.html

and

SoTL/Scholarship of Teaching - Document, Showcase, Demonstrate informed, reflective practice, anchored by theory, showing Impact and significant Results

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/the-vision-of-transformation-in-medical.html

(KSME 2021 - Keynote presentation, June 3, 2021) 

Goh, PS. 'Medical Educator Roles of the Future'. Medical Science Educator. Online publication 30 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01086-w

#IAMSE20 Plenary: Medical Educator Roles of the Future (Facebook Live Video Recording)

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/04/iamse-2020-plenary-presentation-medical.html

(IAMSE 2020 - Plenary presentation, June 18, 2021)

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1

Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000102

https://telatamee2016.blogspot.com/ (AMEE 2016 closing Pecha Kucha presentation blog)

Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982639

Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558420


Micro-Scholarship examples - 

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/covid19-and-adoption-of-technology

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/apmec-2021-panel-discussion-awareness-access-apps

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/model-for-a-dynamic-adaptive-personalised-professional-development-workshop


Scholarship of Application - List, cite, and demonstrate examples, results and outcomes (of and from application of theory, ideas and practices)

Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1

https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3068

Dong C, Goh PS. Twelve tips for the effective use of videos in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Feb; 37(2):140-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25110154


Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. (2019). Using Technology to Nurture Core Human Values in Healthcare. MededPublish, 8, [3], 74, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000223.1

https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2706


Micro-Scholarship examples - 

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/everything-i-have-learnt-about-elearning

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/everything-i-have-learnt-about-elearning-updated-7-april-2020

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/implementation-of-technology-enhanced-learning-including-vr-ar-and-ai-in-medical-education-some-questions-to-ask

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/online-learning-pathway-progression

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/online-learning-pathway-generic-one-example

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/learning-training-and-practice-spectrum-from-abstract-to-actual


Scholarship of Integration - List and network a series of published ideas, from within, adjacent, and others fields of practice

Liaw SY, Augustin CG, Ying L, Tan SC, Lim WS, Goh PS. Multiuser Virtual Worlds in Healthcare Education: A Systematic Review. Nurse Education Today. Volume 65, June 2018, Pages 136-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.01.006 Accepted for publication on 11 January 2018, available online 2 February 2018). 

Sandars J, Patel RS, Goh PS, Kokatailo PK, Lafferty N. The importance of educational theories for facilitating learning when using technology in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Mar 17:1-4.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25776228


Micro-scholarship examples - 

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-hpe-summercourse-2020-digital-literacy-and-competencies

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-hpe-summer-course-overview-2020

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-hpe-a-culinary-analogy

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-medical-education-content-engagement-and-outcomes

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-scholarship-in-medical-education-145349537


Scholarship of Discovery - Data and Results, from Methods, giving rise to 'new' information and theory building, building on existing and published peer reviewed publications (Discovery); Artefacts and Exhibits/Case Studies of Created Materials and examples of Innovation

Liaw SY, Wong LF, Chan SW, Ho JT, Mordiffi SZ, Ang SB, Goh PS, Ang EN. Designing and evaluating an interactive multimedia Web-based simulation for developing nurses' competencies in acute nursing care: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2015 Jan 12;17(1):e5.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25583029

Goh, P.S. (2012). Use of case pairs can potentially improve the efficiency and effectiveness of radiology residency MHPE Master Thesis (Maastricht University). Example of quantitative medical education research.


Micro-Scholarship example (including Creation, Design and Innovation) - 

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/role-of-instagram-like-content-in-elearning-eteaching-digital-research-and-scholarship-108819873

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-educational-resource-hyperlinked-index-vs-restaurant-menu

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/building-blocks-of-digital-scholarship-in-medical-education

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/teaching-and-learning-methods-in-medical-education

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-meded-138327510

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-scholarship-symposium-apmec-2019

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/see-do-feel-then-transfer-with-vr-ar-and-simulation-in-medical-education

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/why-before-what-and-how-to-use-vr-and-ar-in-meded

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/elearning-in-med-ed

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/adoption-of-elearning-in-med-ed-costs-and-value-add-82738401

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/reflect-on-how-blooms-taxonomy-and-millers-pyramid-might-apply-to-learning-continuum-map

Monday, 17 May 2021

#HistoryMedEd #MedicalEducation #Osler #Flexner #Osler-Flexner

Kenneth Calman. (2006). Medical Education: Past, Present and Future. Handing on Learning. Churchill Livingstone.

https://www.elsevier.com/books/medical-education-past-present-and-future/calman/978-0-443-07473-8

Norman, Geoffrey. (2012). Medical education: Past, present and future. Perspectives on medical education. 1. 6-14. 10.1007/s40037-012-0002-7. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3540368/ 

or https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40037-012-0002-7

Tauber A. I. (1992). The two faces of medical education: Flexner and Osler revisited. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 85(10), 598–602.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1293684/pdf/jrsocmed00106-0012.pdf

Rae A. (2001). Osler vindicated: the ghost of Flexner laid to rest. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne, 164(13), 1860–1861.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC81198/

Ayesha Fatima, Manoj Chakravarty*, N. A. L. S. H. J. M. Y. A. H. E. A. A. (2019). Restoring Oslerian clinical training in place of Flexnerian reductionism in medical education: A historical perspective. Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Science, 9(10), 606-610. https://doi.org/10.15520/ijmhs.v9i10.2707

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/the-vision-of-transformation-in-medical.html

Monday, 3 May 2021

#BuildingBlocksOfScholarship in #MedicalEducation

#BuildingBlocksOfScholarship 

by Poh-Sun Goh, 3 May 2021 @ 1045pm, Singapore Time; updated 5 May 2021 @ 1017pm, Singapore Time

This blogpost illustrates the #BuildingBlocksOfScholarship in #MedicalEducation

Making the argument that the #Scholarship of #Discovery (including #Creation and #Innovation), #Integration, #Application and #Teaching (Boyer 1990) is founded on #Theory, including peer reviewed publications (articulating #Thinking, #Models, #TheoreticalFrameworks), and #Evidence (including #Data, and #Observations). 

The fundamental #BuildingBlock of a piece of #Scholarship (#Written, #Articulated-#Spoken-#Presented-#Illustrated) is a review of #KeyIdeas, and #PreviousWork.

#PersonalReflection on my #Journey as #ScholarlyEducator (making arguments and articulating viewpoints based on the literature, data, evidence and observations), and #EducationalScholar.

The professionalisation of my practice started with formal training, and active engagement in the Maastricht MHPE program. Where the first, repeated lesson that was emphasised was that any statement made during discussions within the program, submitted within individual and team assignments due literally every 2 to 3 weeks (3 to 4 assignments per module - every 8 weeks) had to be supported 'by the literature, theory and evidence'. My personal response to this challenge was to post on the online discussion forum daily (the only possible coping mechanism for someone of my personal learning and training preference and personality - essentially taking one small meaningful step every day in public, within a Community of Practice [COP] and Community of Interest [COI]). The daily challenge I gave myself was to present at least one takeaway from required reading of the literature every day, in public, on the online forum; and also to post one useful additional digital resource relevant to each idea or topic under discussion, including why this was relevant and useful. Reflecting back to the two years I actively engaged in the MHPE program in this manner, strictly staying up to date with readings, and assignment submissions, through daily open postings in this manner (on the online discussion forum), I realised that this naturally translated into the #dailyHabit of #openBlogging, which I have engaged in since completing the MHPE program in 2012. Each public blogpost (on Blogger), translated easily into digital material for regular faculty development workshops on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) at the Medical Education Unit, later Center of Medial Education (CenMED) at the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, NUS; where I presented and engaged participants exclusively using material from these blogs, later adding Padlet, SlideShare, and Instagram. This formed the basis for a series of public postings on MedEdWorld, then publications in Medical Teacher and later MedEdPublish, with the iterative cycle demonstrated on this single SlideShare illustration - https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-scholar-the-scholarship-cycle-valueimpactrecognition. Recent examples of the use of individual blogs, containing both newly created and previously created and used training and teaching modular digital content which have been shown to be useful, and well received (through number of online views for example, or which have been repeatedly used by me during faculty development sessions - SlideShare posts, Instagram short texts from previous blogposts) and cited online content can be seen at an upcoming invited keynote presentation for the KSME 2021 meeting available at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/the-vision-of-transformation-in-medical.html, and a TEL workshop at CenMED available at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/03/telmeded-cenmed.html

'Why, before What, and How'

Ultimately, we produce 'works' and 'artefacts' of Scholarship, and engage in the 'Cycle of Scholarship', as active members of a COP and COI, whose members (of these COP, and COI) are both senior practitioners and 'peer reviewers'; and form the wider audience and community which we produce for, and engage with. The value-add of these scholarly activities are recognised by reciprocal engagement, effort, time and attention 'spent' by members of a COP and COI, engaging with and in these scholarly works and engagement processes. This manifests as peer reviewed acceptances of the products of scholarship in medical education for presentation at local and international meetings and conferences, publications in local, regional and international peer reviewed journals, and invitations to speak and present at local, regional and international meetings and conferences (generally recognised at institutional levels by awarding Assistant, through Associate and Professor 'titles'), as well as Associate and Fellow designations (e.g. AFAMEE and FAMEE). Part of the service role of an academic involves contribution and 'giving back' to a COI and COP through acting as a peer reviewer, as a member of active committees (including those organising local, regional and international meetings and conferences), and providing leadership in these activities (which also is recognised within increasing performance bands - Assistant, Associate and [Full] Professor level). Obtaining grants in some settings is integral to the process of appointment, performance reviews and promotion, particularly when these grants fund and provide 'protected time' and resources to engage in part or full time academic scholarly activities, often in 'basic' or the scholarship of discovery (traditional) research. Applied scholarship (and research) including that of Practice and Teaching, Application, Integration, Innovation and Creation, which arise from the regular teaching and training activities of Clinicians, Clinician-Educators and Clinician-Scholars can be particularly amenable to non-grant funded or low cost design based, innovation based, integration and application based, and in practice observations, data collection and reflective practice; including 'Micro-Scholarship' steps. 

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"The idea of Micro-Scholarship is that each step 'is' usable, valuable, and can be valued and assessed, and recognised - at individual, community of practice, and institutional levels (with metrics of audience size - use, commentary and incorporation into practice - citations, 'valued ' and 'judged' as attaining a certain band of performance - e.g. Associate or Full, Associate or Fellow level performance, and 'valued' for contribution impact by promotion and increasing salary band levels." - posted in Thread 3 section, accessible at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/sotl-and-rime-cenmed-nus-workshop-2021.html

"scholarship, like clinical or educational practice occurs in small sequential steps (ideally taken at regular, even daily intervals); each step is additive, and cumulative, as part an academic journey; each step can be documented, digitally, and visible - for open access, inspection, review; each step can be created, or curated with proper attribution, and 'value add' e.g. commentary, customisation, to enable each step to be a modular, free-standing, usable 'piece' of 'Micro-Scholarship. I audience test response to and of content by sharing selected content on Blogger (like this blogpost), Instagram - for short text, references, illustrations; and pay close attention to how the online (Communities of Practice) CoP and (Communities of Interest) CoI share and comment on this on Facebook, Twitter etc." - posted in Thread 1 section, accessible at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/sotl-and-rime-cenmed-nus-workshop-2021.html 

with examples below

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/reflect-on-how-blooms-taxonomy-and-millers-pyramid-might-apply-to-learning-continuum-map (over 24,000 views since October 2016)

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/adoption-of-elearning-in-med-ed-costs-and-value-add-82738401 (over 11,000 views since November 2017)

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/elearning-in-med-ed (over 11,000 views since November 2017)

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-educational-resource-hyperlinked-index-vs-restaurant-menu (over 15,000 views since October 2013)

"our efforts (as open, digital scholars), when aligned with the needs and requirements of our users, including communities of practice and organisations become useful, recognised and valued
recognition by an organisation or institution includes awarding certifications of performance levels + (AND) contribution impact value levels (AS VALUED BY the institution or organisation - e.g. Associate or Professor level performance, Associate or Fellow level performance by AMEE" - posted in Thread 2 section, accessible at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/sotl-and-rime-cenmed-nus-workshop-2021.html 

see How to Start section of SlideShare document below - Points 5, 6 and 7; in order to accomplish point 8, 9 and 10 - which I guess is where the idea of this idea of 'Micro-Scholarship' came from


With each point in both sections of the above SlideShare document elaborated upon in a published peer reviewed journal paper


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MedEdWorld Posts
https://www.mededworld.org/search.aspx?searchtext=poh+sun+goh&searchmode=anyword

https://www.mededworld.org/Reflections-All/Reflection-Items/May-2018/eLearning-in-Medical-Education-Costs-and-Value-Add.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/January-2016/An-analogy-between-cooking-recipes-and-an-academic.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/August-2014/What-AMEE-means-to-me-Significance-and-impact.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/January-2016/One-approach-for-a-participant-to-prepare-and-take.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/March-2014/(e)Scholarship-Traditional-vs-Digital-Scholarship.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/March-2014/(e)Repository.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/September-2013/(e)Learning.aspx

above collated on https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2019/06/digital-scholar-participation-in-amee.html


Examples of Scholarship - along lines of categories proposed by Boyer (1990), informed by the criteria of Scholarship by Glassick (2000), and Hutchings and Schulman (1999).

my MHPE Masters Thesis - simple quantitative experimental study (see following link), is an example of the Scholarship of Discovery https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/for-med-edworldpublishpohsungoh

an example of the Scholarship of Innovation-Creation (creative use) below

Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558420 (10 Citations on Google Scholar to date)

and examples of Scholarship of Integration (example of 12 Tips and one Systematic Review), Application (and Teaching) and future Envisioning/Forecasting

Dong C, Goh PS. Twelve tips for the effective use of videos in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Feb; 37(2):140-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25110154 (over 110 Citations on Google Scholar)

Liaw SY, Augustin CG, Ying L, Tan SC, Lim WS, Goh PS. Multiuser Virtual Worlds in Healthcare Education: A Systematic Review. Nurse Education Today. Volume 65, June 2018, Pages 136-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.01.006 Accepted for publication on 11 January 2018, available online 2 February 2018). (32 Citations on Google Scholar to date)

Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1 https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286 (Over 2,400 views to date, Recommended Status)

Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1 https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3068 (over 20,000 views over last 12 months, Recommended Status; over 60 citations on Google Scholar)

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1 (over 20, 000 views over last 12 months, Recommended Status; over 120 citations on Google Scholar)

Goh, PS. 'Medical Educator Roles of the Future'. Medical Science Educator. Online publication 30 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01086-w

see also

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/10/micro-scholarship-and-digital.html

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2019/05/sotl-and-rime-workshop-cenmed-wednesday.html

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/sotl-and-rime-cenmed-nus-workshop-2021.html

๐Ÿ”„



above from Google Scholar (accessed Saturday, 1 May 2021)


Tuesday, 27 April 2021

SOTL and RIME CenMED @ NUS workshop - 2021

Hello.

Welcome to this (upcoming) SOTL and RIME Workshop @ CenMed

The preparation required before the workshop should take no more than 60 minutes for a brief overview - or around 3 to 6 hours for a deeper dive. A brief one hour engagement process can be split up into three 20 minute sessions, taken say during a meal break, where the first 5 minutes is spent focused on a personal scholarship (including SOTL, or RIME) challenge-task - which can be converted into a 'Micro-Scholarship' step challenge-task, followed by 10 minutes review of material (online, on your device - mobile, tablet, laptop or workstation), with the last 5 minutes crafting a no more than a one short paragraph description of your takeaway from this task, how you would 'apply' this in your setting - how you would 'use' and 'apply' the idea of 'Micro-Scholarship' using technology, in the SOTL and potentially RIME. Please 'write' this down (this one short paragraph), and either take a screenshot of this, or a 'digital photograph' of your handwritten one paragraph note, after each task below - as a digital record of the outcome of each task (for you), and to share, and develop further, during the workshop. (This paragraph x3 for the three tasks, is an intermediate outcome, and personal, and personalised, output for each task).



Task 1

What is Scholarship? (see below - Boyer, Glassick, Hutchings and Shulman), Digital Scholarship?, the SOTL? Micro-Scholarship? (see below - one illustration on SlideShare and short three thread outline. How might you document, and showcase your current practice? As a 'micro-step' or 'digital artefact' of 'micro-scholarship' and example of 'open-scholarship?)

Boyer, E.L. (1990) Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. https://www.umces.edu/sites/default/files/al/pdfs/BoyerScholarshipReconsidered.pdf

Glassick, C.E. (2000) 'Boyer’s expanded definitions of scholarship, the standards for assessing scholarship, and the elusiveness of the scholarship of teaching'. Acad Med. 75:877-80. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200009000-00007

Hutchings, P. and Shulman, L. S. (1999) ‘The Scholarship of Teaching: New Elaborations, New Developments, Change’,The Magazine of Higher Learning, 1:5, pp. 10-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091389909604218 or http://archive.carnegiefoundation.org/publications/elibrary/scholarship-teaching-new-elaborations-new-developments.html

Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1

https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/04/digital-scholarship-in-medical.html


Task 2

Draft out a work-plan for the next 12 months, to create a piece of Scholarship.

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000097.1

https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3116


Task 3

Draft out a work-plan for the next 12 months, to undertake and report on a piece of Action Research, or report on the implementation of Design Thinking in Medical Education.

Sandars J., Goh PS. (2020) 'How to make it work: a framework for rapid research to inform evidence-based decision –making about the implementation of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 154, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000154.1

Sandars, J., & Goh, P.-S. (2020). Design Thinking in Medical Education: The Key Features and Practical Application. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 7, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120520926518


See you at the session (virtually and in-person).

With warmest regards,

Poh-Sun

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Micro-Scholarship and The Scholarship Cycle

⬇️


Micro-Scholarship: Three Threads

by

Poh-Sun Goh
19 April 2021 @ 06.58am, Singapore Time; and revised on 28 April 2021 @ 0628am, Singapore Time


Thread 1

scholarship, like clinical or educational practice occurs in small sequential steps (ideally taken at regular, even daily intervals)
each step is additive, and cumulative, as part an academic journey
each step can be documented, digitally, and visible - for open access, inspection, review
each step can be created, or curated with proper attribution, and 'value add' e.g. commentary, customisation, to enable each step to be a modular, free-standing, usable 'piece' of 'Micro-Scholarship

I audience test response to and of content by sharing selected content on Blogger (like this blogpost), Instagram - for short text, references, illustrations; and pay close attention to how the online (Communities of Practice) CoP and (Communities of Interest) CoI share and comment on this on Facebook, Twitter etc.



https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/elearning-in-med-ed (over 11,000 views since November 2017)



Thread 2

our efforts (as open, digital scholars), when aligned with the needs and requirements of our users, including communities of practice and organisations become useful, recognised and valued
recognition by an organisation or institution includes awarding certifications of performance levels + (AND) contribution impact value levels (AS VALUED BY the institution or organisation - e.g. Associate or Professor level performance, Associate or Fellow level performance by AMEE 

see How to Start section of SlideShare document below - Points 5, 6 and 7; in order to accomplish point 8, 9 and 10 - which I guess is where the idea of this idea of 'Micro-Scholarship' came from


With each point in both sections of the above SlideShare document elaborated upon in a published peer reviewed journal paper



Thread 3

the concept of 'Micro-Scholarship' is a usable, practical and sustainable framework and recipe, similar to practices in the culinary arts, or the arts
where each ingredient, when selected, curated, and prepared (for cooking), is individually of value, visible and can be assessed, tasted, and valued (and is valuable), as well as the completed 'dish', and 'recipes' - all of which can be made openly accessible, for viewing, consumption, and 'sale' to be bought be a consumer or organisation
the idea of taking small cumulative steps, on a regular basis is an analogy that all of us, and the reader, can identify with
the idea of Micro-Scholarship is that each step 'is' usable, valuable, and can be valued and assessed, and recognised - at individual, community of practice, and institutional levels (with metrics of audience size - use, commentary and incorporation into practice - citations, 'valued ' and 'judged' as attaining a certain band of performance - e.g. Associate or Full, Associate or Fellow level performance, and 'valued' for contribution impact by promotion and increasing salary band levels.






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⬆️

On learning. And 'what you take-away'.

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Opening comments for #TeLMedEd Workshop #@CenMed

Relevant to value-add from attending a workshop, as take-aways, and when is learnt and implemented from active engagement with the activities and training process
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Below section first posted on 
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One sentence takeaway - 
Poh-Sun Goh
22 February 2021 @ 1955hrs
"Hungry students, trained teachers, know (and use) what is available (and at hand)."

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eLearning or Technology enhanced Learning
- What it is not, and 'is'
by
Poh-Sun Goh
22 February 2021 @ 1836hrs, Singapore Time
(inspired by a long hot shower)

A 'book' is a 'technology', but alone is 'not' learning.
A 'tablet', mobile device, wearable computing interface/wearable tech, laptop or desktop computer is 'technology', but alone is 'not' learning.

Access to, or visiting a 'library' is 'not' learning.
Access to 'online' digital content is (in and of itself) 'not' learning.

Learning is a physiological (cognitive) process, which requires a combination of 'hunger' or 'desire' to learn, active 'interaction' with content, and a learning or training process (ideally following a deliberate practice with feedback and reflection, and mastery training paradigm), informed by learning science, instructional design principles, pedagogically and technologically literate and trained instructors and teachers (including for clinical practice domain experts), with students and trainees undergoing a stepwise, progressive, cumulative, both to the task and for the task, but ultimately a lifelong, self-directed, self-motivated (including knowing when and how to seek both human and increasingly AI guided coaching and instruction) educational developmental process.

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Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1




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above from

Sunday, 11 April 2021

The vision of transformation in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic - Keynote Presentation, KSME 2021



(This section of the blog was added on 2 June 2021, 
with final edit on 3 June 2021, at 0532am, Singapore Time)

"Thank you to the organising committee for the KSME, 2021 for inviting me to give this keynote presentation. Thank you Professor Hee Chul Han for chairing and moderating this session. And thank you to the audience for attending this presentation, engaging with the topic and material, and your questions (at the end of this presentation). I will spend about half of the allocated time in a more formal traditional presentation, directly from this blog (link of which has been shared with conference participants before the session). I hope to spend at least half of the allocated time in an interactive Q and A interactive discussion. Please feel free to ask your questions in either English or Korean (your questions in Korean will be translated for me 'live'). 

I will start off by highlighting some key ideas in two overview SlideShare documents at the beginning of this blog, as well as by taking a broader look at the history of work, trends in technology exponential growth and adoption, as well as history of medical education; before a more traditional 'presentation' (full transcript below), after which we will have an interactive question and answer segment. Please feel free to review my overview SlideShare slides, as well as presentation full transcript before the session. 

Let's start by taking a broader look, by placing our discussion and this presentation in a broader context of 'the history of work', 'trends in growth and adoption of technology' and 'the history of medical education' (sharing some sources of my inspiration) from - 
1) a review of the the history of work (from Agriculture, through Manufacturing and Services - pre-industrial, industrial and post-industrial; primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary industries - knowledge economy, education, research and development), and James Suzman. (2020). Work - A History of How We Spend Our Time. Bloomsbury, London; 
2) a review of trends in growth and size of technology companies, https://www.datadriveninvestor.com/2019/07/06/how-big-are-the-big-techs/ and
3) and a review of the history of medical education, in 'Medical Education: Past, Present and Future: Handing on Learning', Kenneth Calman, 2006, Churchill Livingstone, ISBN: 9780443074738"
and
Custers, Eugรจne J.F.M. PhD; Cate, Olle ten PhD The History of Medical Education in Europe and the United States, With Respect to Time and Proficiency, Academic Medicine: March 2018 - Volume 93 - Issue 3S - p S49-S54 doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002079 
and
Yeoh K. G. (2019). The future of medical education. Singapore medical journal, 60(1), 3–8. https://doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2019003 




(This section of the blog was added on 3 June 2021, at 3.45pm, Singapore Time
Updated on 4 June 2021, at 0203am, Singapore Time)

Several questions were proposed from the audience of over 500 participants, submitted in written format via a question-text option, and read out 'live' by the session chair and moderator, Professor Dr Hee Chul Han.

Some of these questions, and the response(s) given, including an expanded answer (taking advantage of the asynchronous possibility of an online blog) were (are):

Q: How would you allay / address the concern that local educators have, regarding their teaching role, when 'famous' or well known international lecturers offer their presentations (and teaching material) free online?

A: My deep conviction, from observation, and personal experience, is that there will always be a role for the local teacher, who deeply understands the 'individual' student or trainee, including their background, prior knowledge and training, as well as specific learning and training needs. A skilled, and experience local, or on-site tutor, instructor, and coach can customise and individualise content for knowledge and skill training, including providing longitudinal and personalised instruction, and interactive feedback. We learn, and deepen personal insights and skills through experience, practice, and interaction with peers and fellow students, and more experience practitioners, in communities of practice and learning. The literature and learning science informs us of this. Learning and training in a local institution, and training center will always have a role.

Q: How would you assess training in 'soft skills', including empathy?

A: Briefly, we could observe the student or trainee performance using 'live' or recorded video (with appropriate permission, consent and privacy safeguards); and also get direct feedback from 'the patient', or fellow team members if this is part of team based training and practice.

I would also refer (the audience) to a published article which was written to complement an APMEC conference symposium and workshop on this topic. Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. (2019). Using Technology to Nurture Core Human Values in Healthcare. MededPublish, 8, [3], 74, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000223.1

Q: Can a fully virtual university replace a physical one?

A: There is evidence, and insights from personal observation and experience (which I believe that all of us have had the opportunity to engage in), that for continuing professional development and postgraduate training that virtual only university experience, with 'motivated' and 'committed' students and trainees is effective, and efficient. With undergraduate students, and junior residents however, these participants will lose out by missing the opportunity to develop deeper personal and professional relationships with each other, and with their senior colleagues and teachers - which 'live' interaction allows (much easier to build trust, pick up non-verbal cues, and be spontaneous and interactive). That being said, it is possible, with 'extra' effort, to build 'new' and even deep(er) interpersonal and professional relationships online, though it requires commitment, and additional effort and engagement, over a longer period of time.

Q: What are some of the key (new) curricular items in a medical program (for the future), and how can curricular time be found for these?

A: I have strong personal views about the need to build a deep foundation in basic sciences for example, which have developed from my personal professional experience having the opportunity to experience a traditional classical medical education program (at the University of Melbourne Medical School), which included 2 years of anatomy, which provided a strong foundation for my current clinical practice (as a Radiologist). My many year formal training in the martial arts (including Tae Kwon Do) where I had the opportunity to visit Seoul, and see your junior and senior students, and experience the emphasis on building, and continuing to build a strong foundation (for example in basic stances and techniques in the martial arts) and to be taught by master practitioners both in clinical practice (for example my mentor, Professor Lenny Tan, who was concurrently head of Radiology, Dean of Medicine and Chairman of the Medical Board whilst practicing as a full time diagnostic and interventional radiologist) and my senior teachers in Tae Kwon Do; have given me a deep appreciation of the need to build and keep practicing 'the basics'. It takes time to train doctors and healthcare practitioners well. However, learning and training is a lifelong process, and not all of the basic sciences need to be taught at undergraduate level. Students and trainees can repeatedly come back to and revisit basic sciences for example, to revise, deepen and broaden their knowledge throughout an undergraduate, postgraduate and lifelong continuing education and professional training program. This allows space in the undergraduate medical program to incorporate what I feel are core skills for our medical students (who we select as the very best, brightest, and most motivated students from each school cohort) - an undergraduate medical program which should include formal training in the science of learning (learning science), digital literacy skills (where to search for and evaluate online information), and 'soft skills' (including personal resilience, mental health, communication, empathy) and broader skill sets (like management, health economics, public health, innovation, design thinking). Faculty development including competency building in teaching skills and digital literacy, as well as formal training in how to 'coach', is also a core skill, for both faculty in medical schools, as well as our medical students and clinical residents, who will be the next generation of teachers. 'To See (One), Do and Teach'. One can also argue, that curricular planners and instructors, who are formally trained in teaching science and digitally skilled (both teachers and students), can plan and deliver accelerated and personalised training programs for individual students, going beyond time based, to skill and competency based, rigorous training programs, supported by both human instructors and AI (including ambient comprehensive data and learning analytics) - at undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing professional development and lifelong learning settings.

Q: What are costs involved in digital transformation in Singapore, and what are some of the initiatives that have been implemented in Singapore?

Please refer to 
Yeoh K. G. (2019). The future of medical education. Singapore medical journal, 60(1), 3–8. https://doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2019003 














37th Annual Meeting of the Korean Society for Medical Education (KSME 2021)
Theme: Medical Education in the Era of Pandemic
Date: June 03 (Thu) - 04 (Fri.), 2021
Venue: Fully Virtual Conference

Program
Day 1 (June 03)
09:00~9:30 Opening Ceremony (08:00~8:30 Singapore Time)
09:30~10:30 Keynote Speech (08;30~09:30 Singapore Time)
Title: The vision of transformation in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic
Speaker: Poh-Sun Goh


Abstract: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is currently gripping the world, literally on a global scale, affecting lives and livelihoods. It is clear that we will be living 'with' COVID-19, in the near future, for at least several years, in a dynamic interaction between our adaptability and resilience as a human race, and that of the COVID-19 virus. The COVID-19 pandemic is a 'stress-test' of profound magnitude, and is potentially only the prelude to greater challenges we will face in the coming years and decades, in the first half of the 21st century. Against this backdrop, this presentation will be focused on the past, present, and (possible) future; what we can and arguably should keep, what we can (and arguably could) discard or change, and what we could imagine, and envision ourselves doing, to transform medical education. The content to be presented will be available on a customised blog, posted on the conference website one week before the presentation. Interested participants are encouraged to explore the content posted on this blog (accessible at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/the-vision-of-transformation-in-medical.html), examine their local setting and practice, and imagine possible and potential futures in medical education. As a scenario building and discussion exercise, please consider three potential futures - 1) a continuation of current practice in Medical Education, with 'emergency eLearning' or use of Technology, blended with in-person activities, with ongoing exploration of 'newer technologies' like Tele-Health, Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR and AR) and Mixed Reality (MR), and use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Robotics; 2) in addition to the first scenario practice, wide-spread, global multi-site, no-cost or low-cost rapid prototyping innovation including experimenting with disruptive paradigms, global co-operative sharing and co-developing of open access digital content, and simulation paradigms, which are shared globally, at no-cost; including having the very best teachers and instructors design, build and curate (with attribution) the very best content; localised and customised by a combination of AI and well trained, passionate local educators, with digital literacy and life-long learning skills and competencies part of the core curriculum for all current and future health professional practitioners; 3) the first scenario combined with centers of excellence, innovation and disruptive thinking and development, who then propagate best practices and ideas globally, funded by public-private not-for-profit governance structures, allowing donations and crowdfunding, and tax-free status to resource up this scenario. All three scenarios would be anchored by the best principles and fundamentals of what we know from learning science, innovation and design thinking, management and leadership best practices - addressing the needs of 'hungry students, trained teachers, using what is available and at hand'. (This abstract posted online on Sunday, 9 May 2021, 1945hrs, Singapore Time).

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(In the lead up to the KSME 2021 conference, I will be adding further to this blog, daily. This includes a written transcript of my presentation, which will be progressively written on a regular, even daily basis. You can observe this process in real-time, similar to a 'live-cooking' demonstration, in an 'open-kitchen', where the key ingredients used, food preparation, and cooking process, are visible, and open - similar to an 'open digital scholarship process' - Poh-Sun Goh, 10 May 2021, 0625, Singapore Time)


The vision of transformation in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic
by Poh-Sun Goh

Transcript: (this section first posted on 10 May 2021, 0626am, Singapore Time; last modified on 22 May 2021, 0941am and 5.38pm, Singapore time; with afterword added on Sunday 23 May 2021, 0745am, Singapore Time; and additional afterword quotes added on Sunday 23 May 2021, and Monday 24 May 2021)

Opening comments:

Thank you to the organising committee of the KSME 2021, for inviting me to give this keynote presentation. Thank you to the participants and attendees at the KSME 2021, for both engaging with the topic and theme of this presentation (before, during and after the conference), as well as engaging in the interactive Q and A immediately after my planned short opening presentation.


Presentation:

The formal, 'didactic' portion of my presentation will be short. And focused. This is to allow the maximum possible time during the allocated session for 'live' interactive discussion. Online. This time allocation approach, I believe, will not only take full advantage of the possibility of sharing many of the key ideas online through this blog 'before' the session; it will take full advantage of the 'live' audience during the allocated session time at the conference to engage in a meaningful, interactive discussion; that is relevant, useful, localised and customised for the actual participants attending this session at the conference.


Medical Education - Past, Present and Future

What to keep, what to modify, add to, reduce, remove, discard. A thought experiment. To contemplate, speculate upon. Discuss.


What is a (more) likely outcome, when robust, rigorous, competitive selection criteria are used to screen for, select, and admit the very best (academically, in motivation, talent, skill, heart, track record) novices; and then put these through an extended, foundation making, theory and practice process, over not years, but several decades, involving high stakes in outcomes (patient care, learning and training, academic and research, as well as administrative and societal expectation metrics)? When high, internationally recognised benchmarks for both process and outcomes are used? In healthcare. Higher education and training. Internationally benchmarked research.

Can we shorten training times? Reduce individual and societal costs? Yet maintain, and improve outcomes? Get more, for less? Leverage on digital content, technologies, platforms and networks?

We use, and have always aspired to use, the very 'best' textbooks, and learning materials. The most rigorous training processes. Select the 'best' students. Select, hire and train the 'best' teachers. And students. Provide both students and teachers with the tools, skills and environment in which to excel. What does open access to the very best digital content, teaching and training methods, and teachers, both human, and increasingly blended with AI and robotic systems offer. In order to raise standards, scale, reduce costs. And time to train? 

What if only the very best teachers, and best teaching and training methods are made available to 'all' students and trainees? At reasonable costs. Affordable costs. Augmented by AI, technology tools and platforms. 

What if the most relevant, up to date, best and most useful content was made available, open and accessible, and low or 'no' cost, for all students and trainees? Or in an affordable and cost efficient manner?

Just as we make the best textbooks available to all students, what about the best teachers and training methods? Both human and digital.

How can we best address the 'digital divide'? The resource divide? Between individuals, practice settings, organisations, places? Within a locale? A city or county? Within countries? Between countries and regions?

What are minimum standards to aim for? How we most efficiently and effectively achieve this? More efficiently and effectively attain this?

As a scenario building and discussion exercise, we could consider three potential futures - 1) first, a continuation of current practice in Medical Education, with 'emergency eLearning' or use of Technology, blended with in-person activities, with ongoing exploration of 'newer technologies' like Tele-Health, Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR and AR) and Mixed Reality (MR), and use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Robotics; 2) second, in addition to the first scenario practice, wide-spread, global multi-site, no-cost or low-cost rapid prototyping innovation including experimenting with disruptive paradigms, global co-operative sharing and co-developing of open access digital content, and simulation paradigms, which are shared globally, at no-cost; including having the very best teachers and instructors design, build and curate (with attribution) the very best content; localised and customised by a combination of AI and well trained, passionate local educators, with digital literacy and life-long learning skills and competencies part of the core curriculum for all current and future health professional practitioners; 3) lastly, consider the first scenario combined with centers of excellence, innovation and disruptive thinking and development, who then propagate best practices and ideas globally, funded by public-private not-for-profit governance structures, allowing donations and crowdfunding, and tax-free status to resource up this scenario. All three scenarios would be anchored by the best principles and fundamentals of what we know from learning science, innovation and design thinking, management and leadership best practices - addressing the needs of 'hungry students, trained teachers, using what is available and at hand'. 

Of the three scenarios proposed, it is likely that a combination of 'all' three scenarios will play out in medical education, and professional training-lifelong learning settings. This is due to the spectrum of different local practice and individual needs (and motivation), requirements, resource levels, and readiness. There will be innovators, early and late adopters. What is clear, is that technological and digital adoption and transformation is inevitable, and part of our current reality, where-ever one might live, learn, work or practice in. 

Arguably, the impact of digital and human tinkering at the edges, and incremental improvement, with step-wise environmental including digital transformative events and tipping points (by chance, or design), will be, hopefully, a general raising of midpoints and the mean of healthcare practice and training outcomes; raising overall standards of practice, doing more with less, while maintaining a spectrum of performance levels, above an acceptable minimal threshold.


Closing comments:

May I leave you with one personal insight, and deep conviction - that we (humans) will succeed, and thrive, in this era of Technological transformation, accelerated worldwide by the COVID-19 pandemic, not only through learning about, and wisely designing-adopting-blending technology tools and platforms, as well as digital content and processes into our day to day lives and work; but by doubling down on, and developing deep insight and expertise into human capabilities and skills. By focusing not only on Artificial Intelligence or AI; but by deliberate, determined efforts 'Augmenting' our 'Human' Intelligence, by learning how to learn in the most efficient and effective ways possible (through application of learning science), and developing to the 'highest' levels our abilities to empathise, communicate and work together; our interpersonal, intercultural, and working together with each other and understanding each other communication, and dynamic emotional regulation and literacy skills. Blending this with a deep understanding of how human networks, both strong and weak ties, work and function best. Augmented and scaled up by technology tools and platforms.


Afterword:

This presentation has been from the perspective of a clinician-educator, and academic. The viewpoint of an educational administrator and leader, the head of a medical school, a university; a minister (education, health, finance) would add further insights and perspectives to this discussion, including that of budgets, costs (savings, expenditures), manpower (including hiring, training, time allocation, tenure), and accountability (to constituents, the electorate, the public). Not to mention arguably the key stakeholder, the student, the trainee, the life-long learner. As a thought experiment, please switch roles to that of a student, trainee or life-long learner, engaged in formal or informal learning. What resources do you habitually and routinely access? Those recommended, or do you actively search for additional, more helpful, relevant and useful material? How do you do this? Where do you do this? Do you have formal training in how to do this? What is the 'job to be done'? (to paraphrase Clayton Christensen and his colleagues from Harvard Business School). What is 'at hand'? Usable, useful, affordable, effective and efficient" (to get the job done). Do you, or would you search online for 'free', open access, and the 'best' learning and training material, ideas and processes? Do our students already independently 'vote with their feet' and 'their behaviour', from 'class attendance' (both physically, and mentally, not to mention being emotionally 'present', or not being 'present')?


Additional Afterword: (posted on 23 May 2021, 0815am, Singapore Time)

Let's speculate, and engage in one more thought experiment, to consider the 'economics' of medical education. Who pays for this? What do we pay for? Pay attention to? Engage with? Engage for?

What can be low cost or free? Made freely available? Perhaps the content? And training outlines? Training plans and curriculum?
What can AI do?
What do humans, and can human intelligence do best? When, where, with whom and how do we do this? 
- To customise? Localise? Engage with students? Curate (customised)? Recommend (customised)? To guide? To coach? To provide customised and higher level personalised feedback? Beyond basic teaching (content transmission), training (practice and feedback on basic skills)?
What and where is the threshold between self-study, and guided study and instruction (AI then augmented Human Intelligence and Instruction)?


Case studies - MIT open content and courseware. Coursera and MOOCs with open, free access model, where payment is charged for certificates, credentials, and human input-peer review-feedback-judgement-assessment. MOOCs + local and personal customisation, instruction and coaching. 


Content is free. Or to use a culinary analogy, a list of ingredients and the cooking recipe, and even videos and guides are free, or open access. Payment is required for class and workshop participation, personal instruction and coaching, and credentials / certificates of participation in recognised and accredited training programs and of successful performance - from formal testing and on-the-job assessments and evaluation, and to be licensed (evidence of undertaking formal training, and of performance), not unlike a 'driving licence' , 'pilot's' flying licence, or license to practice (medical, dental, nursing, allied health).


Afterword quotes:

'Each one of us is = the Sum total of our Genetic endowment (Nature) + Environment (Nurture) comprising Upbringing + Family + School (formal education) + Training (formal + informal + lifelong learning) + Experience(s) + Work + Other Activities/Skills/Passions/Interests (Why, Where, When, How, With Whom, What and How we spend and allocate our Time, Attention, Energy, Effort, Passion) [including Innate or Training to be Adaptable, Resilient, Motivated, Engaged, Balanced, with an Ethical and Moral Compass, be Reflective and a Lifelong Open Humble Learner.' [With Whom = our parents, family, teachers, guides, mentors, coaches, role-models, peers, colleagues, friends, associates, networks, strong and weak links]
Poh-Sun Goh, 23 May 2021, 0910am, Singapore Time




'At the end of the day we come back to the individual, who is the learner, and practitioner; who is trained, undergoes a training process, which is lifelong (both professional, and personal, as a lifelong, adaptable and adaptive learner, who ideally is trained formally and informally in the science of effective and efficient learning); who is certified and licensed to practice, and both maintains and regularly renews this license to practice (through rigorous evaluation and assessment, by both a formal recognised training organisation - university, teaching hospital, training program; and both international and local licensing authority - professional association e.g. fellowship and local license to practice). Continuous improvement and transformation of this lengthy longitudinal professional training and certification to practice path offers several, if not many opportunities to blend the 'best use' of human guided training, feedback and coaching with technology tools and platforms (including AI, VR, AR, MR, robotics, simulation paradigms and simulators, as well as pervasive or regularly sampled indicators and data of both performance and outcomes - with learning and performance analytics). We augment this with visibility, data, performance and outcome analysis and analytics of professional teams, and both localised and larger health systems and networks; in order to build high functioning, high quality efficient and effective, safe clinical teams, and health systems, at local, regional, countrywide; and even at international levels. Why not? Blending the best of human intelligence (HI) and AI could potentially, can, and should allow us to scale best practices.'
Poh-Sun Goh, 24 May 2021, 0618am, Singapore Time




Thank you.

I am looking forward to having an interactive discussion with you next.


Published and cited references used in my presentation and within the transcript will be - 

Goh, PS. 'Medical Educator Roles of the Future'. Medical Science Educator. Online publication 30 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01086-w

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1

Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

"Hungry students, trained teachers, know (and use) what is available (and at hand)." - Poh-Sun Goh, first presented at (University of Nottingham MMedSci in Medical Education TEL Panel Q&A Session, February 2021)/ posted on https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2021/02/telmededqandapanel-university-of.html

Emanuel EJ. The Inevitable Reimagining of Medical Education. JAMA. 2020;323(12):1127–1128. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1227 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2762453

Wartman, Steven & Combs, C.. (2019). Reimagining Medical Education in the Age of AI. AMA journal of ethics. 21. E146-152. 10.1001/amajethics.2019.146.  

Prober, Charles G., MD; Khan, Salman Medical Education Reimagined, Academic Medicine: October 2013 - Volume 88 - Issue 10 - p 1407-1410 doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182a368bd https://stage-journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Fulltext/2013/10000/Medical_Education_Reimagined__A_Call_to_Action.9.aspx

Holly A. Caretta-Weyer, Teresa Chan, Blair L. Bigham, Benjamin Kinnear, Sรถren Huwendiek, Daniel J. Schumacher & On behalf of the ICBME Collaborators (2021) If we could turn back time: Imagining time-variable, competency-based medical education in the context of COVID-19, Medical Teacher, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2021.1925641


"Imagine that instead of paying millions for enterprise solutions and the people to support them, the Institution instead invests in more and different people who are instead experts in learning design and minimal computing to assist faculty in building their distance courses differently…What levels of creativity could be unleashed by redirecting money into hiring, supporting, and paying our faculty and staff to do this work with the money freed up from not paying for access to tech that is in fact inaccessible and even dangerously invasive?" (Bessette, 2021)

Bessette, L. S. (2021).  Digital redlining, minimal computing, and equity. In  S. Koseoglu,  G. Veletsianos, &  C. Rowell (Eds.),  Critical digital pedagogy – Broadening horizons, bridging theory and practice [EH3] (Forthcoming). Athabasca University Press.
(cited in Just Because We Can Doesn't Mean We Should – Lessons in Digital Learning - Tomorrow's Professor posting #1878)

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Key Themes: Medical Education - what it is, brief history, its value proposition, current practice, possible futures (potential, anticipated).


Key Words: Strategic Thinking, Vision, Value Proposition, Structural Change, (Multiple) Secular Drivers (supporting), Digital Transformation, Digital Disruption, Medical Education, Future Thinking, Design Thinking, Innovation, eLearning, Technology enhanced Learning (TeL), COVID-19 (pandemic, endemic, living with - getting on with life and mingling with people), Disruption. Technology. 'e-Everything', Technological Unemployment. AI. 'Robo-sapiens'. Contactless or 'Contact-Free' Economy. Asia's Big Digital Transformation. The human touch. Motivation, Hunger, Meaning, Purpose. Needs and Wants. Assessment. Programmatic Assessment. CBME (Competency-Based Medical Education). Minimal Computing.


Key Takeaways: Start by being Open, Observing, and being Objective. Why, before What, and How. Needs and Requirements, Current-Anticipated-Projected-Aspirational, should drive (Omni-channel = Physical + Digital, 'Phygital', or 'Clicks-and-Bricks') Transformation. Response to AI is to become 'more human' - empathy, mindfulness, counselling - mentoring - guiding - coaching - teaching - [leading] (orientation and formal training). 

Go beyond knowing How, and What - go deep, do deep work, build deep foundation, knowing Why - taking into account #Motivation, #LearningScience, #Psychology, #Sociology, #SocialAnthropology, #Economics, #Management, #Leadership, #Governance, #Politics, being #Adaptable, #Agile, #Innovative, #ForwardThinking, #ScenarioPlanning, build #CommunicationSkills, #EQ - essentially #Knowledge, #Skills, #Attitudes/Feelings/Convictions. Poh-Sun Goh, 8 May 2021, 0448am, Singapore Time. 


'Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again, but expecting different results.' - Rita Mae Brown (misattributed to Albert Einstein) https://www.businessinsider.com/misattributed-quotes-2013-10 (see point 12.)




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Emanuel EJ. The Inevitable Reimagining of Medical Education. JAMA. 2020;323(12):1127–1128. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1227 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2762453




Wartman, Steven & Combs, C.. (2019). Reimagining Medical Education in the Age of AI. AMA journal of ethics. 21. E146-152. 10.1001/amajethics.2019.146.  

Prober, Charles G., MD; Khan, Salman Medical Education Reimagined, Academic Medicine: October 2013 - Volume 88 - Issue 10 - p 1407-1410 doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182a368bd https://stage-journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Fulltext/2013/10000/Medical_Education_Reimagined__A_Call_to_Action.9.aspx

Holly A. Caretta-Weyer, Teresa Chan, Blair L. Bigham, Benjamin Kinnear, Sรถren Huwendiek, Daniel J. Schumacher & On behalf of the ICBME Collaborators (2021) If we could turn back time: Imagining time-variable, competency-based medical education in the context of COVID-19, Medical Teacher, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2021.1925641 

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One sentence takeaway - 
Poh-Sun Goh
22 February 2021 @ 1955hrs
"Hungry students, trained teachers, know (and use) what is available (and at hand)."

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eLearning or Technology enhanced Learning
- What it is not, and 'is'
by
Poh-Sun Goh
22 February 2021 @ 1836hrs, Singapore Time
(inspired by a long hot shower)

A 'book' is a 'technology', but alone is 'not' learning.
A 'tablet', mobile device, wearable computing interface/wearable tech, laptop or desktop computer is 'technology', but alone is 'not' learning.

Access to, or visiting a 'library' is 'not' learning.
Access to 'online' digital content is (in and of itself) 'not' learning.

Learning is a physiological (cognitive) process, which requires a combination of 'hunger' or 'desire' to learn, active 'interaction' with content, and a learning or training process (ideally following a deliberate practice with feedback and reflection, and mastery training paradigm), informed by learning science, instructional design principles, pedagogically and technologically literate and trained instructors and teachers (including for clinical practice domain experts), with students and trainees undergoing a stepwise, progressive, cumulative, both to the task and for the task, but ultimately a lifelong, self-directed, self-motivated (including knowing when and how to seek both human and increasingly AI guided coaching and instruction) educational developmental process.

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'know, know how, shows how, does'
see more
Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Acad Med. 1990; 65: S63-7.

ten Cate, Olle PhD; Carraccio, Carol MD; Damodaran, Arvin MBBS, MMedEd; Gofton, Wade MD; Hamstra, Stanley J. PhD; Hart, Danielle E. MD, MACM; Richardson, Denyse MD; Ross, Shelley MA, PhD; Schultz, Karen MD; Warm, Eric J. MD; Whelan, Alison J. MD; Schumacher, Daniel J. MD, PhD Entrustment Decision Making: Extending Miller’s Pyramid, Academic Medicine: February 2021 - Volume 96 - Issue 2 - p 199-204 doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000003800


Cruess, Richard L. MD; Cruess, Sylvia R. MD; Steinert, Yvonne PhD Amending Miller’s Pyramid to Include Professional Identity Formation, Academic Medicine: February 2016 - Volume 91 - Issue 2 - p 180-185 doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000913 


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Goh, PS. 'Medical Educator Roles of the Future'. Medical Science Educator. Online publication 30 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01086-w

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Basically am modelling the curatorial role of an educator + some customisation + use of technology + sprinkled with 'scholarship of integration, application and education' ...
Poh-Sun Goh


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'Final Tip' - I have always found analogies useful - the learning science of this (using analogies) - is 'linking' new to familiar or old (new to prior knowledge). 
Poh-Sun Goh


(in case you all are wondering ... idea is to make each teaching element a potential, and actual 'reusable digital object') ... hence the screenshots
Poh-Sun Goh



Digital first. Digital ready. From the very beginning. 
Poh-Sun Goh


Thank you

Above section first presented on Monday at a panel discussion in Feb 2021 link below (assembled over over one weekend, after request to join late Friday just before session - to illustrate use of open access online material, created and curated with attribution on a regular, daily basis - on a network of multiple interconnected personal presentation and educational - for faculty development and training blogs)



Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982639

Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558420

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Further Reading:

Goh, PS. 'Medical Educator Roles of the Future'. Medical Science Educator. Online publication 30 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01086-w

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1

Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.





James Suzman. (2020). Work - A History of How We Spend Our Time. Bloomsbury, London.


Google’s Plan for the Future of Work: Privacy Robots and Balloon Walls. Daisuke Wakabayashi. The New York Times. April 30, 2021

David L. Rogers. The Digital Transformation Playbook: Rethink Your Business for the Digital Age (Columbia Business School Publishing) Hardcover – April 5, 2016

Chalmers Brothers. (2005). Language and the pursuit of Happiness. New Possibilities Press. 
(The key message from the book, relevant to my topic, and theme of the conference, is that our language, our choice of words, reflects and influences 'how' we 'look' at things, situations, and people; and has a powerful influence on how we en-'Vision' (our) future).

George Leonard. (1992). Mastery - The Keys to Success and Long-Term Fulfillment. 
(The key message from this book, relevant to my topic, and theme of the conference, is that 'implementing' and making long term, sustained, and sustainable value and impact in our practice requires a 'Mastery' mental orientation, and mindset. )



This presentation builds on earlier presentations and preparation for upcoming presentations (below):





(upcoming Focused Session, IAMSE 2021)

(Technology Enhanced Learning Workshop, CenMED, NUS, 2021)

(University of Nottingham MMedSci in Medical Education TEL Panel Q&A Session)

(panel discussion, APMEC 2021)



(plenary presentation, FIMHSE 2020)

(best practice session, AMEE 2020)

(plenary presentation, IAMSE 2020)

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