Wednesday, 22 September 2021

Imaging of the Chest and Lungs - Online resources to support lecture for year 1 MBBS (NUS)

 

NUSMed Entrada link for Sep 29, 2021 M1 lecture scheduled for 12 noon.


Preparation for session, and Content to be reviewed (below section)

The aim of the session is to link the anatomy which you have learnt in the chest, to what is visible on the two most commonly used imaging tests you will use as doctors in day to day clinical practice - the CXR, and CT scan of the Chest.  Radiology allows you to see 'living anatomy' and pathology, of your patients in vivo. The CXR allows you to look inside your patient in 2D, while the CT scan gives you multi-planar sectional details, and a '3D-like' appreciation of both anatomy and pathology. You should aim to develop the ability to orientate yourself to the visible structures when viewing both the CXR, and CT scans; and be able to identify normal anatomy. This will form the foundation for the study of pathology, and the appreciation of visible pathology in your patients using CXRs and CT scans in year 2, and subsequent clinical years.

There are two learning paths (illustrated on the blog below) - a Guided learning path, and an Exploratory learning path. Please choose one path based on your learning preference, and review the material before the 'live' lecture. We will review this content during the 'live' lecture on Microsoft Teams.

Guided learning path: For those of you who like a very prescriptive guided learning path - start with CXR video 1, then CXR video 2, then CXR anatomy website (see chest section) (using illustrations as drill and quiz examples, by viewing CXR first without annotations, then mousing over each image, then read text); then view CT chest video 1, then CT chest video 2, then attempt to identify CT anatomy here. (Viewing these videos within or embedded in the blog below is one method to reduce ads which appear before the video). 

Exploratory learning path: For those of you who prefer a more exploratory learning path, starting with interactive illustrations and text, you are encouraged to review the open access CXR anatomy website (see chest section) below, as well as information about how to approach the CXR (including normal anatomy), and CT scan with scrollable images links below. For those students who prefer learning from illustrated online videos, please review the two videos below before the lecture - Chest X-Ray Interpretation Explained Clearly - How to read a CXR and LEARN to Read a Chest Xray in 5 minutes!. Also review the two videos below reviewing visible anatomy on CT of the chest - Anatomy of a Transverse CT of the Thorax and Introduction to Computed Tomographic imaging of the Chest. (Viewing these videos within or embedded in the blog below is one method to reduce ads which appear before the video). 


The following are links to my individual 'lecture' slides. You can preview these in sequence.














https://learningchestradiology.blogspot.com/2018/10/chest-radiology-anatomy-correlation.html
(password access required, this is for instructors)


https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/medical-imaging-and-radiological-anatomy

https://radiopaedia.org/articles/chest-radiograph

https://radiopaedia.org/cases/normal-ct-chest

https://www.radiologycafe.com/medical-students/radiology-basics/chest-anatomy

http://www.castlemountain.dk/atlas/index.php?page=modules

STR (The Society for Thoracic Radiology) Curriculum for Medical Students and Allied Health Professionals - Please view Chest Radiography: Cardiothoracic Anatomy (video presentation), and Advanced imaging: Basic Chest CT Anatomy (video presentation) before lecture


CXR video 1 (view within blog below)
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we will discuss ideas presented in the videos above and below during the 'live' online lecture
(for students, please view both videos, above and below, before the online 'live' lecture)

CXR video 2 (view within blog below)
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please also review the two videos below reviewing visible anatomy on CT of the chest

CT chest video 1 (view within blog below)
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CT chest video 2 (view within blog below)
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Before, during, and After session Padlet open access, to view and comment online discussion board

Dear students, 

Please post questions morning before, during, and for the 5 days after the scheduled session - i.e. Wednesday 30 September 2020 till midnight Sunday 4 October 2020. I will start answering questions on an intermittent basis over the next 5 days. I hope that this will give you an individualised, personal, customised learning experience, during this unprecedented time of the COVID-19 pandemic, where face to face live interaction between teaching staff and students, and between students is significantly reduced. 

Padlet is an interactive digital wall, which for the purpose of this session I have made open access for online viewing and posting - you are able to write, edit and delete your own posts, without needing to login (by just double clicking or double tapping on the Padlet wall, or clicking the circled red + button bottom right of the Padlet wall), as long as you use the same mobile or desktop device. Even though this platform works with all mobile and desktop devices, you will probably find using a laptop/workstation or tablet the easiest way to write and edit your posts on this website. Please consider identifying yourself, with at least your first name. You might also op to use initials, in order to further anonymise your Padlet posts, as this is available for open access. 

I have organised this Padlet wall for each new post to be placed at the top of the page, with older posts at the bottom. You can thus find your post as new posts are added by other participants. Please consider refining and adding to your post over the next 5 days on the same post, which you can do as long as you use the same device. I encourage you to comment on other participants' posts also, as well as ask follow up questions to my responses, and to your fellow students questions.

The pedagogy, instructional intent, and learning science behind this approach is the following. Learning requires active engagement on your part with the content. This includes understanding why this content is important, and how this is useful, relevant, and can be applied in your current and future learning and practice. How this content builds on your existing knowledge and skills, including attitudes. In addition, time-on-task, and the opportunity to access relevant, useful, bite size, modular content to learn, re-learn, add to, and refresh your knowledge and skill base is assisted by technology platforms (like this open access blog-website). My role as instructor and guide is to curate relevant content, recommend learning paths, encourage and assist you to actively engage with, and use the learning material. Your learning process will be accelerated by repeatedly coming back to engage with the material, engaging in self-study, note taking, Q and A, peer discussion, practicing recall of key ideas (on 'paper' or digitally), sharing this with your peers, presenting and 'voicing' out key ideas, repeatedly practicing knowledge recall, and application of skills (in this case, and for this session being able to identify key anatomical structures visible on the CXR, and CT scan of the chest).

For those of you who are interested in the 'learning science' behind many of the learning activities you are engaged in, the following website has useful bite size resources for you as a student (and future instructor). 'See, Do and Teach'. Doing and eventually Teaching, peers, then later juniors is one of the best ways to consolidate and deepen your knowledge and understanding; as well as develop proficiency, competency, and mastery of a topic. 


see also
from 'Introduction to Learning and Teaching' online course; UNSW Sydney

and

I hope you enjoy this 'modified' learning and training format - from that of a traditional lecture, where typically some (variable amount) preparation occurs beforehand, during lecture note taking, where some - often limited live Q and A occurs (due to time, and only one Q and A possible sequentially; not to mention a particular Q might not be relevant to majority of the class; or a relevant Q and A posed individually at end of the class cannot be shared with the rest of the class). I hope this extended 5 day engagement (which is intended to reduce 'cognitive overload') also allows the majority / all of the class time to engage with the content, digest and assimilate the content, as well as an expanded opportunity to engage in Q and A both with your peers, and with me on the Padlet space below. This is something that 'large class or whole class' lectures have been relatively inefficient in, compared with small group tutorials and discussions, or one on one interactions.
Whole class lectures have been popular as it is a time efficient method for the lecturer to 'deliver' content. I hope you find this modified approach a significant improvement from the traditional 'live' attendance lecture format to learn at your own pace, and time, effectively and efficiently.

Lastly, some time management tips. I recommend for those of you who have not viewed the session content, including self directed interactive websites, and videos, to use the scheduled 'lecture' time to view the content, take notes, and pose questions on the Padlet wall below. I encourage you to share your notes/key ideas and takeaways on the Padlet wall. I encourage you to either work individually, or in online groups to both post your notes on the session, and Q and A as a group (for those of you who feel you learn best in small groups). I am confident that you are all experts in time management, who constantly aim for efficient and effective learning. I hope this 'modified' model of a 'lecture' allows you to spend the 30 minutes preparation, 1 hour in session time, and at least 30 minutes post session notes review, editing and reflection (in a typical learning and engagement model) in the most time efficient and effective way. Total time expenditure expected around 2 hours. Learning impact and effectiveness I expect significantly better, and more effective, than 'passively' and physically attending and listening/watching my live presentation. 

I will regularly, and intermittently check the Padlet wall for questions, comments, and notes/reflections that individual students, or a student group might pose, over the next 5 days. I will assume if only a few questions are posed over the next 5 days, or even no questions, comments, or. requests for additional content/resources that individually, and collectively the class is satisfied with your learning experience, and has found this engagement model valuable. I do recommend strongly that even if you all have no questions, that the class individually, or as groups posts short takeaways of what you learnt from your two hour engagement in this learning exercise. I will then comment and add to this to reflect my judgement of your learning 'success' for this session.

Enjoy your learning. Have fun. With purpose. I look forward to engaging with you all on the Padlet wall below.

Poh Sun

Made with Padlet



Preview of Year 2

Monday, 23 August 2021

#One-(Daily)-Step #FRCR2b #RANCR-Viva #Preparation #Coaching

Coaching, and Daily Practice for FRCR2b and RANCRViva preparation

One - Daily - Regular - Cumulative - Step

by Poh-Sun Goh, 24 August 2021, 0611am, Singapore Time


1. Working collectively as a team, on regular basis, collect and curate (with attribution) examples (visual) from list of likely cases you will be shown.

2. For each case, write short list of key observations, and concluding statement.

3. Practice articulating this (aloud, out loud); in a setting/adopting a body posture-breathing-tone of voice (somatic practice, coaching) that you will use on the day of the examination.

- practice with increasing intensity, and duration in the lead up to the viva examination

- keep refining, editing (down, shorter and shortest possible is best) exactly what you will say, and key reciting this out loud until this feels natural and a reflex for you

- do this every day

- start today by selecting one case example, and drafting what you will say

- as a challenge, and coaching request, may I invite each of the 2b and RANCR viva candidates to curate one open access plain film example from online image search (with attribution - provide URL link), and draft of what you will say in the viva - please do this by Monday next week [as you all get into the hang of this, imagine how little effort collecting and curating this will be if each of you does one case example a day ... and imagine if every resident does this ..... and shares the effort ..... and benefits]


The fundamental premise is that you 'know' likely cases (examples) you will encounter in the examination, yet do not 'practice' in a habitual, systematic, efficient and therefore time-effective-efficient way. On regular (daily) basis. - Poh-Sun Goh, 24 August 2021, 0625am, Singapore Time


One simple place to start is with Chapman & Nakielny's Aids to Radiological Differential Diagnosis Part 1 and Part 2 - https://www.elsevier.com/books/chapman-and-nakielnys-aids-to-radiological-differential-diagnosis/rafiee/978-0-7020-7539-1

Sunday, 20 June 2021

M3 Tutorial on Friday 25 June 2021 @ 1pm

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Email message to M3 students on Monday, 25 June 2021
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Dear M3 SUR CG 1-13 students (78 students, 13 Clinical Groups),
For the Radiology session  “Acute Abdomen”, this will be a one hour scheduled live interactive teaching session (on Zoom) this Friday 25 June 2021, followed by self-study session of the presented and reference-further reading online content (see below). Please refer to Entrada and visit the blog for the open access online content curated by A/Prof Goh Poh Sun at this URL https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/06/m3-tutorial-on-friday-25-june-2021-1pm.html.

Remarks : One hour live interactive presentation by instructor, with live Q and A. Post session optional self study of content from presentation blog. For those students who are interested, please feel free to review the session outline and content before the tutorial.

We will be covering 7 major clinical conditions (below) 

Radiology Bowel Perforation
Radiology Bowel Obstruction
Radiology Acute Appendicitis
Radiology Acute Cholecystitis
Radiology Acute Diverticulitis
Radiology Acute Pancreatitis
Radiology Colon Cancer

Best regards
Poh Sun

(This tutorial process has been iteratively refined over the last year, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Learning takes place essentially as a process of self study, in each of you individually. Following by active discussion and use of this material in clinical practice. For this session, we will review and discuss your understanding during the live session this Friday. My role is to present compact, usable content, that you can both review and use, and come back to, as and when you require in the future. For those of you who are interested in how this tutorial process has been refined over the last year with previous tutorial groups please click to tap on this link - https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/03/m3-tutorial-on-friday-19-march-2021-1pm.html)

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Start here with background info and learning tips
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Some tips to increase your learning and training effectiveness and efficiency:
Poh-Sun Goh

1. Reflect on the purpose of your medical education and expected outcomes of your undergraduate education and clinical training process.
2. Your current clinical exposure to case based learning in the emergency department, wards, and clinics-outpatient settings builds on a foundation of pre-clinical basic sciences in year 1 and 2 of the medical program (with anatomy and pathology particularly applicable to the interpretation of radiology / imaging studies of your patients).
3. For the abdomen, think about what anatomical structures lie within the area of interest/clinical presentation, or may present with the clinical symptoms and signs exhibited by your patients. Ask yourself what radiological investigation you might request or review in order to make a diagnosis - to rule in, or rule out potential clinical diagnosis. Radiology helps you to "see living anatomy and pathology" in your patients. Thus confirm or exclude diagnosis. Keep in mind that early disease may have very subtle of "negative" imaging during the early stages of clinically symptomatic disease.
4. Review the Radiology studies for your patients. Ask yourself why certain investigations were performed. And in what order.
5. Correlate imaging findings with your clinical observations. Do they make sense, correlate with clinical findings, or do you have to entertain alternative diagnostic possibilities?
6. Use textbooks and a wide variety of online resources to improve your diagnostic and interpretative skills. Practice, practice, practice with reflection and feedback, using a range of resources, to increase your exposure to the variety and spectrum of clinical and imaging findings, both normal and abnormal, from typical, to less common and atypical (as you progress to increase your experience and mastery of clinical practice, and improve your knowledge and skills from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing professional development and lifelong learning settings).
7. Compare and contrast is one of the simplest and most effective methods to learn to recognise and differentiate between normal and abnormal XRs and scans. Review a series of normal XRs and scans, and then do side by side comparison between examples of normal, normal and abnormal, and examples of abnormal XRs and scans. 

https://effectiviology.com/interleaving/ (mixed practice or interleaving superior to blocked practice)

and



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Below section is guided learning path (Option 1)
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Session guide (one learning path) - start with 'Tips' section above, then explore material section below, all on open access websites. One path is to start with 'a curriculum', then explore an approach to the AXR, both normal, and abnormal. Followed by review of common pathology presenting as an acute abdomen on CT scans. Start with bowel perforation on erect CXR, and AXR, unknown cases, for example here, focusing on appearance of free air, and 'Rigler's sign' on AXR. Then move on to examples of acute appendicitisacute cholecystitisacute diverticulitis (focusing on the similarities between these three pathologies, and taking note of differences between normal and abnormal structures, paying attention to the wall of the structure, and the adjacent fat in particular). Then review bowel obstruction, on the AXR, and CT scan, paying attention to the strengths and weaknesses of the AXR, and added value of a CT scan - pay attention to visibility of bowel segment which is dilated proximal to obstructing point, and cause of obstruction shown on CT).

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Below section is alternative exploratory path (Option 2)
Starting with background information, and "curriculum"
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Below section for Google images search for thematic cases (for practice review, and click through for additional information for selected cases)
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Radiology Colon Cancer


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Section below for self-directed learning



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Google and Entrada analytics for current tutorial
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Sunday, 23 May 2021

#Categories of Scholarship in Medical Education #Scholarship in MedEd #Micro-Scholarship

Scholarship of Practice/Digital Scholarship - Open, Accessible, Available for Reflection, Evaluation and Peer Review, to be Critiqued, and Built Upon

'Micro-Scholarship' - 'Document (each and every) individual 'step' taken as part of curating, creating, innovating, discovering, integrating, applying, teaching and professional practice as an academic scholar in Medical Education / Health Professions Education and Training', Poh-Sun Goh, 25 May 2021, 1255am, Singapore Time

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/05/buildingblocksofscholarship-in.html

and

SoTL/Scholarship of Teaching - Document, Showcase, Demonstrate informed, reflective practice, anchored by theory, showing Impact and significant Results

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/the-vision-of-transformation-in-medical.html

(KSME 2021 - Keynote presentation, June 3, 2021) 

Goh, PS. 'Medical Educator Roles of the Future'. Medical Science Educator. Online publication 30 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01086-w

#IAMSE20 Plenary: Medical Educator Roles of the Future (Facebook Live Video Recording)

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/04/iamse-2020-plenary-presentation-medical.html

(IAMSE 2020 - Plenary presentation, June 18, 2021)

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1

Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

http://dx.doi.org/10.15694/mep.2016.000102

https://telatamee2016.blogspot.com/ (AMEE 2016 closing Pecha Kucha presentation blog)

Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982639

Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558420


Micro-Scholarship examples - 

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/covid19-and-adoption-of-technology

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/apmec-2021-panel-discussion-awareness-access-apps

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/model-for-a-dynamic-adaptive-personalised-professional-development-workshop


Scholarship of Application - List, cite, and demonstrate examples, results and outcomes (of and from application of theory, ideas and practices)

Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1

https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3068

Dong C, Goh PS. Twelve tips for the effective use of videos in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Feb; 37(2):140-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25110154


Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. (2019). Using Technology to Nurture Core Human Values in Healthcare. MededPublish, 8, [3], 74, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000223.1

https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2706


Micro-Scholarship examples - 

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/everything-i-have-learnt-about-elearning

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/everything-i-have-learnt-about-elearning-updated-7-april-2020

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/implementation-of-technology-enhanced-learning-including-vr-ar-and-ai-in-medical-education-some-questions-to-ask

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/online-learning-pathway-progression

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/online-learning-pathway-generic-one-example

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/learning-training-and-practice-spectrum-from-abstract-to-actual


Scholarship of Integration - List and network a series of published ideas, from within, adjacent, and others fields of practice

Liaw SY, Augustin CG, Ying L, Tan SC, Lim WS, Goh PS. Multiuser Virtual Worlds in Healthcare Education: A Systematic Review. Nurse Education Today. Volume 65, June 2018, Pages 136-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.01.006 Accepted for publication on 11 January 2018, available online 2 February 2018). 

Sandars J, Patel RS, Goh PS, Kokatailo PK, Lafferty N. The importance of educational theories for facilitating learning when using technology in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Mar 17:1-4.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25776228


Micro-scholarship examples - 

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-hpe-summercourse-2020-digital-literacy-and-competencies

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-hpe-summer-course-overview-2020

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-hpe-a-culinary-analogy

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-medical-education-content-engagement-and-outcomes

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-scholarship-in-medical-education-145349537


Scholarship of Discovery - Data and Results, from Methods, giving rise to 'new' information and theory building, building on existing and published peer reviewed publications (Discovery); Artefacts and Exhibits/Case Studies of Created Materials and examples of Innovation

Liaw SY, Wong LF, Chan SW, Ho JT, Mordiffi SZ, Ang SB, Goh PS, Ang EN. Designing and evaluating an interactive multimedia Web-based simulation for developing nurses' competencies in acute nursing care: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2015 Jan 12;17(1):e5.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25583029

Goh, P.S. (2012). Use of case pairs can potentially improve the efficiency and effectiveness of radiology residency MHPE Master Thesis (Maastricht University). Example of quantitative medical education research.


Micro-Scholarship example (including Creation, Design and Innovation) - 

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/role-of-instagram-like-content-in-elearning-eteaching-digital-research-and-scholarship-108819873

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-educational-resource-hyperlinked-index-vs-restaurant-menu

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/building-blocks-of-digital-scholarship-in-medical-education

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/teaching-and-learning-methods-in-medical-education

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/tel-in-meded-138327510

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-scholarship-symposium-apmec-2019

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/see-do-feel-then-transfer-with-vr-ar-and-simulation-in-medical-education

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/why-before-what-and-how-to-use-vr-and-ar-in-meded

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/elearning-in-med-ed

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/adoption-of-elearning-in-med-ed-costs-and-value-add-82738401

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/reflect-on-how-blooms-taxonomy-and-millers-pyramid-might-apply-to-learning-continuum-map

Monday, 17 May 2021

#HistoryMedEd #MedicalEducation #Osler #Flexner #Osler-Flexner

Kenneth Calman. (2006). Medical Education: Past, Present and Future. Handing on Learning. Churchill Livingstone.

https://www.elsevier.com/books/medical-education-past-present-and-future/calman/978-0-443-07473-8

Norman, Geoffrey. (2012). Medical education: Past, present and future. Perspectives on medical education. 1. 6-14. 10.1007/s40037-012-0002-7. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3540368/ 

or https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40037-012-0002-7

Tauber A. I. (1992). The two faces of medical education: Flexner and Osler revisited. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 85(10), 598–602.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1293684/pdf/jrsocmed00106-0012.pdf

Rae A. (2001). Osler vindicated: the ghost of Flexner laid to rest. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne, 164(13), 1860–1861.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC81198/

Ayesha Fatima, Manoj Chakravarty*, N. A. L. S. H. J. M. Y. A. H. E. A. A. (2019). Restoring Oslerian clinical training in place of Flexnerian reductionism in medical education: A historical perspective. Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Science, 9(10), 606-610. https://doi.org/10.15520/ijmhs.v9i10.2707

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/the-vision-of-transformation-in-medical.html

Monday, 3 May 2021

#BuildingBlocksOfScholarship in #MedicalEducation

#BuildingBlocksOfScholarship 

by Poh-Sun Goh, 3 May 2021 @ 1045pm, Singapore Time; updated 5 May 2021 @ 1017pm, Singapore Time

This blogpost illustrates the #BuildingBlocksOfScholarship in #MedicalEducation

Making the argument that the #Scholarship of #Discovery (including #Creation and #Innovation), #Integration, #Application and #Teaching (Boyer 1990) is founded on #Theory, including peer reviewed publications (articulating #Thinking, #Models, #TheoreticalFrameworks), and #Evidence (including #Data, and #Observations). 

The fundamental #BuildingBlock of a piece of #Scholarship (#Written, #Articulated-#Spoken-#Presented-#Illustrated) is a review of #KeyIdeas, and #PreviousWork.

#PersonalReflection on my #Journey as #ScholarlyEducator (making arguments and articulating viewpoints based on the literature, data, evidence and observations), and #EducationalScholar.

The professionalisation of my practice started with formal training, and active engagement in the Maastricht MHPE program. Where the first, repeated lesson that was emphasised was that any statement made during discussions within the program, submitted within individual and team assignments due literally every 2 to 3 weeks (3 to 4 assignments per module - every 8 weeks) had to be supported 'by the literature, theory and evidence'. My personal response to this challenge was to post on the online discussion forum daily (the only possible coping mechanism for someone of my personal learning and training preference and personality - essentially taking one small meaningful step every day in public, within a Community of Practice [COP] and Community of Interest [COI]). The daily challenge I gave myself was to present at least one takeaway from required reading of the literature every day, in public, on the online forum; and also to post one useful additional digital resource relevant to each idea or topic under discussion, including why this was relevant and useful. Reflecting back to the two years I actively engaged in the MHPE program in this manner, strictly staying up to date with readings, and assignment submissions, through daily open postings in this manner (on the online discussion forum), I realised that this naturally translated into the #dailyHabit of #openBlogging, which I have engaged in since completing the MHPE program in 2012. Each public blogpost (on Blogger), translated easily into digital material for regular faculty development workshops on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) at the Medical Education Unit, later Center of Medial Education (CenMED) at the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, NUS; where I presented and engaged participants exclusively using material from these blogs, later adding Padlet, SlideShare, and Instagram. This formed the basis for a series of public postings on MedEdWorld, then publications in Medical Teacher and later MedEdPublish, with the iterative cycle demonstrated on this single SlideShare illustration - https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-scholar-the-scholarship-cycle-valueimpactrecognition. Recent examples of the use of individual blogs, containing both newly created and previously created and used training and teaching modular digital content which have been shown to be useful, and well received (through number of online views for example, or which have been repeatedly used by me during faculty development sessions - SlideShare posts, Instagram short texts from previous blogposts) and cited online content can be seen at an upcoming invited keynote presentation for the KSME 2021 meeting available at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/the-vision-of-transformation-in-medical.html, and a TEL workshop at CenMED available at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/03/telmeded-cenmed.html

'Why, before What, and How'

Ultimately, we produce 'works' and 'artefacts' of Scholarship, and engage in the 'Cycle of Scholarship', as active members of a COP and COI, whose members (of these COP, and COI) are both senior practitioners and 'peer reviewers'; and form the wider audience and community which we produce for, and engage with. The value-add of these scholarly activities are recognised by reciprocal engagement, effort, time and attention 'spent' by members of a COP and COI, engaging with and in these scholarly works and engagement processes. This manifests as peer reviewed acceptances of the products of scholarship in medical education for presentation at local and international meetings and conferences, publications in local, regional and international peer reviewed journals, and invitations to speak and present at local, regional and international meetings and conferences (generally recognised at institutional levels by awarding Assistant, through Associate and Professor 'titles'), as well as Associate and Fellow designations (e.g. AFAMEE and FAMEE). Part of the service role of an academic involves contribution and 'giving back' to a COI and COP through acting as a peer reviewer, as a member of active committees (including those organising local, regional and international meetings and conferences), and providing leadership in these activities (which also is recognised within increasing performance bands - Assistant, Associate and [Full] Professor level). Obtaining grants in some settings is integral to the process of appointment, performance reviews and promotion, particularly when these grants fund and provide 'protected time' and resources to engage in part or full time academic scholarly activities, often in 'basic' or the scholarship of discovery (traditional) research. Applied scholarship (and research) including that of Practice and Teaching, Application, Integration, Innovation and Creation, which arise from the regular teaching and training activities of Clinicians, Clinician-Educators and Clinician-Scholars can be particularly amenable to non-grant funded or low cost design based, innovation based, integration and application based, and in practice observations, data collection and reflective practice; including 'Micro-Scholarship' steps. 

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"The idea of Micro-Scholarship is that each step 'is' usable, valuable, and can be valued and assessed, and recognised - at individual, community of practice, and institutional levels (with metrics of audience size - use, commentary and incorporation into practice - citations, 'valued ' and 'judged' as attaining a certain band of performance - e.g. Associate or Full, Associate or Fellow level performance, and 'valued' for contribution impact by promotion and increasing salary band levels." - posted in Thread 3 section, accessible at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/sotl-and-rime-cenmed-nus-workshop-2021.html

"scholarship, like clinical or educational practice occurs in small sequential steps (ideally taken at regular, even daily intervals); each step is additive, and cumulative, as part an academic journey; each step can be documented, digitally, and visible - for open access, inspection, review; each step can be created, or curated with proper attribution, and 'value add' e.g. commentary, customisation, to enable each step to be a modular, free-standing, usable 'piece' of 'Micro-Scholarship. I audience test response to and of content by sharing selected content on Blogger (like this blogpost), Instagram - for short text, references, illustrations; and pay close attention to how the online (Communities of Practice) CoP and (Communities of Interest) CoI share and comment on this on Facebook, Twitter etc." - posted in Thread 1 section, accessible at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/sotl-and-rime-cenmed-nus-workshop-2021.html 

with examples below

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/reflect-on-how-blooms-taxonomy-and-millers-pyramid-might-apply-to-learning-continuum-map (over 24,000 views since October 2016)

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/adoption-of-elearning-in-med-ed-costs-and-value-add-82738401 (over 11,000 views since November 2017)

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/elearning-in-med-ed (over 11,000 views since November 2017)

https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/digital-educational-resource-hyperlinked-index-vs-restaurant-menu (over 15,000 views since October 2013)

"our efforts (as open, digital scholars), when aligned with the needs and requirements of our users, including communities of practice and organisations become useful, recognised and valued
recognition by an organisation or institution includes awarding certifications of performance levels + (AND) contribution impact value levels (AS VALUED BY the institution or organisation - e.g. Associate or Professor level performance, Associate or Fellow level performance by AMEE" - posted in Thread 2 section, accessible at https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/sotl-and-rime-cenmed-nus-workshop-2021.html 

see How to Start section of SlideShare document below - Points 5, 6 and 7; in order to accomplish point 8, 9 and 10 - which I guess is where the idea of this idea of 'Micro-Scholarship' came from


With each point in both sections of the above SlideShare document elaborated upon in a published peer reviewed journal paper


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MedEdWorld Posts
https://www.mededworld.org/search.aspx?searchtext=poh+sun+goh&searchmode=anyword

https://www.mededworld.org/Reflections-All/Reflection-Items/May-2018/eLearning-in-Medical-Education-Costs-and-Value-Add.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/January-2016/An-analogy-between-cooking-recipes-and-an-academic.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/August-2014/What-AMEE-means-to-me-Significance-and-impact.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/January-2016/One-approach-for-a-participant-to-prepare-and-take.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/March-2014/(e)Scholarship-Traditional-vs-Digital-Scholarship.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/March-2014/(e)Repository.aspx

https://www.mededworld.org/hardens-blog/reflection-items/September-2013/(e)Learning.aspx

above collated on https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2019/06/digital-scholar-participation-in-amee.html


Examples of Scholarship - along lines of categories proposed by Boyer (1990), informed by the criteria of Scholarship by Glassick (2000), and Hutchings and Schulman (1999).

my MHPE Masters Thesis - simple quantitative experimental study (see following link), is an example of the Scholarship of Discovery https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/for-med-edworldpublishpohsungoh

an example of the Scholarship of Innovation-Creation (creative use) below

Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558420 (10 Citations on Google Scholar to date)

and examples of Scholarship of Integration (example of 12 Tips and one Systematic Review), Application (and Teaching) and future Envisioning/Forecasting

Dong C, Goh PS. Twelve tips for the effective use of videos in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Feb; 37(2):140-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25110154 (over 130 Citations on Google Scholar)

Liaw SY, Augustin CG, Ying L, Tan SC, Lim WS, Goh PS. Multiuser Virtual Worlds in Healthcare Education: A Systematic Review. Nurse Education Today. Volume 65, June 2018, Pages 136-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.01.006 Accepted for publication on 11 January 2018, available online 2 February 2018). (38 Citations on Google Scholar to date)

Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1 https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286 (Over 2,900 views to date, Recommended Status)

Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1 https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3068 (over 20,000 views over last 12 months, Recommended Status; over 95 citations on Google Scholar)

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1 (over 20,000 views over last 12 months, Recommended Status; over 175 citations on Google Scholar)

Goh, PS. 'Medical Educator Roles of the Future'. Medical Science Educator. Online publication 30 September 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01086-w

Goh, PS. 'The vision of transformation in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic'. Korean J Med Educ. 2021;33 (3): 171-174. Publication Date (Web): 2021 August 27

see also

https://telmeded.blogspot.com/2020/10/micro-scholarship-and-digital.html

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2019/05/sotl-and-rime-workshop-cenmed-wednesday.html

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2021/04/sotl-and-rime-cenmed-nus-workshop-2021.html

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above from Google Scholar (accessed Tuesday, 7 September 2021)



above from Google Scholar (accessed Monday, 23 August 2021)



above from Google Scholar (accessed Saturday, 1 May 2021)


Tuesday, 27 April 2021

SOTL and RIME CenMED @ NUS workshop - 2021

Hello.

Welcome to this (upcoming) SOTL and RIME Workshop @ CenMed

The preparation required before the workshop should take no more than 60 minutes for a brief overview - or around 3 to 6 hours for a deeper dive. A brief one hour engagement process can be split up into three 20 minute sessions, taken say during a meal break, where the first 5 minutes is spent focused on a personal scholarship (including SOTL, or RIME) challenge-task - which can be converted into a 'Micro-Scholarship' step challenge-task, followed by 10 minutes review of material (online, on your device - mobile, tablet, laptop or workstation), with the last 5 minutes crafting a no more than a one short paragraph description of your takeaway from this task, how you would 'apply' this in your setting - how you would 'use' and 'apply' the idea of 'Micro-Scholarship' using technology, in the SOTL and potentially RIME. Please 'write' this down (this one short paragraph), and either take a screenshot of this, or a 'digital photograph' of your handwritten one paragraph note, after each task below - as a digital record of the outcome of each task (for you), and to share, and develop further, during the workshop. (This paragraph x3 for the three tasks, is an intermediate outcome, and personal, and personalised, output for each task).



Center for Engaged Learning. (2013, September 9). Key characteristics of the scholarship of teaching and learning. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/yvDKHHyx7YY.



Roux, Dirk & Murray, Kevin & Wyk, Ernita. (2008). Learning to learn for social-ecological resilience: balancing strategy options in public sector organisations. 


Morahan, P.S. and Fleetwood, J. (2008), The double helix of activity and scholarship: building a medical education career with limited resources. Medical Education, 42: 34-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02976.x  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-double-helix-of-activity-and-scholarship%3A-a-Morahan-Fleetwood/68e6db2b23e55f60da9e974584dd4024ac8cf3fe

Task 1

What is Scholarship? (see below - Boyer, Glassick, Hutchings and Shulman), Digital Scholarship?, the SOTL? Micro-Scholarship? (see below - one illustration on SlideShare and short three thread outline. How might you document, and showcase your current practice? As a 'micro-step' or 'digital artefact' of 'micro-scholarship' and example of 'open-scholarship?)

Boyer, E.L. (1990) Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. https://www.umces.edu/sites/default/files/al/pdfs/BoyerScholarshipReconsidered.pdf

Glassick, C.E. (2000) 'Boyer’s expanded definitions of scholarship, the standards for assessing scholarship, and the elusiveness of the scholarship of teaching'. Acad Med. 75:877-80. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200009000-00007

Hutchings, P. and Shulman, L. S. (1999) ‘The Scholarship of Teaching: New Elaborations, New Developments, Change’,The Magazine of Higher Learning, 1:5, pp. 10-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091389909604218 or http://archive.carnegiefoundation.org/publications/elibrary/scholarship-teaching-new-elaborations-new-developments.html

Goh PS, Sandars J. (2019). Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world, MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2019.000085.1

https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/2286

https://medicaleducationelearning.blogspot.com/2020/04/digital-scholarship-in-medical.html


Task 2

Draft out a work-plan for the next 12 months, to create a piece of Scholarship.

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'Rethinking scholarship in medical education during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 97, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000097.1

https://www.mededpublish.org/manuscripts/3116


Task 3

Draft out a work-plan for the next 12 months, to undertake and report on a piece of Action Research, or report on the implementation of Design Thinking in Medical Education.

Sandars J., Goh PS. (2020) 'How to make it work: a framework for rapid research to inform evidence-based decision –making about the implementation of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 154, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000154.1

Sandars, J., & Goh, P.-S. (2020). Design Thinking in Medical Education: The Key Features and Practical Application. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 7, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120520926518


See you at the session (virtually and in-person).

With warmest regards,

Poh-Sun

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Micro-Scholarship and The Scholarship Cycle

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Micro-Scholarship: Three Threads

by

Poh-Sun Goh
19 April 2021 @ 06.58am, Singapore Time; and revised on 28 April 2021 @ 0628am, Singapore Time


Thread 1

scholarship, like clinical or educational practice occurs in small sequential steps (ideally taken at regular, even daily intervals)
each step is additive, and cumulative, as part an academic journey
each step can be documented, digitally, and visible - for open access, inspection, review
each step can be created, or curated with proper attribution, and 'value add' e.g. commentary, customisation, to enable each step to be a modular, free-standing, usable 'piece' of 'Micro-Scholarship

I audience test response to and of content by sharing selected content on Blogger (like this blogpost), Instagram - for short text, references, illustrations; and pay close attention to how the online (Communities of Practice) CoP and (Communities of Interest) CoI share and comment on this on Facebook, Twitter etc.



https://www.slideshare.net/dnrgohps/elearning-in-med-ed (over 11,000 views since November 2017)



Thread 2

our efforts (as open, digital scholars), when aligned with the needs and requirements of our users, including communities of practice and organisations become useful, recognised and valued
recognition by an organisation or institution includes awarding certifications of performance levels + (AND) contribution impact value levels (AS VALUED BY the institution or organisation - e.g. Associate or Professor level performance, Associate or Fellow level performance by AMEE 

see How to Start section of SlideShare document below - Points 5, 6 and 7; in order to accomplish point 8, 9 and 10 - which I guess is where the idea of this idea of 'Micro-Scholarship' came from


With each point in both sections of the above SlideShare document elaborated upon in a published peer reviewed journal paper



Thread 3

the concept of 'Micro-Scholarship' is a usable, practical and sustainable framework and recipe, similar to practices in the culinary arts, or the arts
where each ingredient, when selected, curated, and prepared (for cooking), is individually of value, visible and can be assessed, tasted, and valued (and is valuable), as well as the completed 'dish', and 'recipes' - all of which can be made openly accessible, for viewing, consumption, and 'sale' to be bought be a consumer or organisation
the idea of taking small cumulative steps, on a regular basis is an analogy that all of us, and the reader, can identify with
the idea of Micro-Scholarship is that each step 'is' usable, valuable, and can be valued and assessed, and recognised - at individual, community of practice, and institutional levels (with metrics of audience size - use, commentary and incorporation into practice - citations, 'valued ' and 'judged' as attaining a certain band of performance - e.g. Associate or Full, Associate or Fellow level performance, and 'valued' for contribution impact by promotion and increasing salary band levels.






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On learning. And 'what you take-away'.

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Opening comments for #TeLMedEd Workshop #@CenMed

Relevant to value-add from attending a workshop, as take-aways, and when is learnt and implemented from active engagement with the activities and training process
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Below section first posted on 
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One sentence takeaway - 
Poh-Sun Goh
22 February 2021 @ 1955hrs
"Hungry students, trained teachers, know (and use) what is available (and at hand)."

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eLearning or Technology enhanced Learning
- What it is not, and 'is'
by
Poh-Sun Goh
22 February 2021 @ 1836hrs, Singapore Time
(inspired by a long hot shower)

A 'book' is a 'technology', but alone is 'not' learning.
A 'tablet', mobile device, wearable computing interface/wearable tech, laptop or desktop computer is 'technology', but alone is 'not' learning.

Access to, or visiting a 'library' is 'not' learning.
Access to 'online' digital content is (in and of itself) 'not' learning.

Learning is a physiological (cognitive) process, which requires a combination of 'hunger' or 'desire' to learn, active 'interaction' with content, and a learning or training process (ideally following a deliberate practice with feedback and reflection, and mastery training paradigm), informed by learning science, instructional design principles, pedagogically and technologically literate and trained instructors and teachers (including for clinical practice domain experts), with students and trainees undergoing a stepwise, progressive, cumulative, both to the task and for the task, but ultimately a lifelong, self-directed, self-motivated (including knowing when and how to seek both human and increasingly AI guided coaching and instruction) educational developmental process.

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Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P.S., Hege, I., Masters, K., Oh, S.Y., Patel, R., Premkumar, K., Webb, A., Pusic, M. (2020). 'Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic'. MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 82, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1

Goh P.S, Sandars J. (2020) 'A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic', MedEdPublish, 9, [1], 49, https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1




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above from