Wednesday, 12 December 2018

What is Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)? eLearning?

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quote posted on Instagram

What is Technology to me? What does Technology do for me? - in Medical Education and Training, MedEd Faculty Development
by Poh-Sun Goh

Low cost or no cost
At hand, in the palm of my hand
24/7, on demand
Mobile through Tablet, Laptop and Large Screen to eventual high resolution, low latency Virtual/Augmented Reality visualisation

4G and soon 5G
High speed WiFi and broadband

Accessible and discoverable, searchable, digital content - free and low cost access
Easy to Use
Well designed software, apps, platforms
Devices with easy to use UI and excellent UX

TEACH (including design, plan, assess, evaluate, provide feedback - seek feedback, learning analytics and outcomes)
LEARN (including access, on demand, customised, personalised, Relevant, feedback, achieving competencies and learning outcomes - Right content, Right time, for the job Required)

Scale, Network
Time, Place, Space expansion
Choice, Best Time, When Useful
Pause, Repeat, Come back to


Share, Interact with, Collaborate  EDUCATIONAL SCHOLARSHIP

Guide(s), Interactions, Points of View - Access to EXPERTS (subject matter, content), WIDER POINTS of VIEW

Outcome metrics - What is Technology to me? What does Technology do for me? - in Medical Education and Training, MedEd Faculty Development
(posted by Poh-Sun Goh on 19 February 2019 @ 0900am)

SPEND on (TIME, ATTENTION, $), use, ask for, invite, recommend, collect, link to, curate, cite-discuss, think about, think of


Technology enhanced learning, or eLearning.

Reflecting on my use of Technology in teaching, learning, and in faculty development today.

Key words which come to mind include ‘ease” of use, ‘expanding’ and ‘extending’ access, and my reach as a teacher, with students and trainees, and fellow teachers. To create, and curate content (with attribution), including graphics, video and multimedia. To work together, and collaborate.

There is great democratisation of access to, and understanding of how to use the tools and platforms available. We start off with digital content (our PowerPoint deck comes to mind), which can then be accessed, and shared, in multiple formats and forms.

The limiting factors are time, motivation, awareness, training - including in pedagogy, instructional design and design thinking, and an experimental, rapid improvement, scholarly and scholarship mindset, and mindfulness of not only the positive use of technology, but also the ‘dark’ side of technology use, and pitfalls in its use.

All this against a backdrop of ongoing rapid, exciting, exponential expansion of technology adoption and use by increasing numbers of individuals worldwide, with technology development, and innovative application of technology within, and outside education making the news on a daily basis. The excitement, and engagement I feel with technology use is due to many of the features and points made in Step 1 (previous section).


Reflect on how Bloom's taxonomy, Miller's pyramid and the Kirkpatrick model might apply to learning continuum map from Poh-Sun Goh

3 take home points 

1. focus on your teaching and learning objectives, not the technology ... (e)Learning (small "e", big "L"... focus on the Learning) ... focus on understanding learning needs, curricula design, scaffolding, learner support and customised learning, assessment with feedback and evaluate what you are doing ... document and make transparent your process

2. use "simple" tech - email, SMS, blogs (websites) to broadcast, and "narrowcast" .. targeted message ... connect ... disseminate ... document

3. keep refining your teaching techniques, and improving as an educator  (Glassick's criteria - clear goals, adequate preparation, appropriate methods, significant results, effective presentation, AND reflective critique ..... Glassick, C.E., Huber, M.R. & Maeroff, G.I. (1997). Scholarship Assessed - Evaluation of the Professiorate. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass).

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Teaching and Learning Methods in Medical Education from Poh-Sun Goh

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Sunday, 9 December 2018

Recap 2018


Digital Scholarship and Engagement - Indicators, Metrics, Value and Impact
Poh-Sun Goh 

eLearning or TEL(Technology Enhanced Learning) is increasingly being integrated into medical education and training, from undergraduate, through postgraduate to continuing education and lifelong learning settings, with increasing emphasis on blended and mobile learning, in the workplace and just-in-time settings. TEL with utilisation of digital content and engagement provides visibility of our teaching and training efforts as educators, showing ‘what we teach with, and assess on’ (Goh, 2016). TEL approaches can also be used to provide visibility and metrics of student engagement, as well as demonstrate intermediate and final outcomes of student learning (Goh & Sandars, 2016; Goh, 2017). TEL is increasing transforming medical education, going beyond substitution, augmentation and modification of learning - the ‘SAMR model’ (Puentedura, 2013). Reflective educators, and educational scholars have always sought to evaluate and assess the value and impact of their teaching and training efforts, and Digital Scholarship, with attention paid to data, indicators and metrics of engagement and output, can facilitate these efforts. Use of 'free', low cost, off the shelf, easy to use and accessible digital tools and platforms, combined with curated and created digital content repositories, by faculty who are 'digitally literate' and professional, facilitates adoption and scaling up of our scholarly efforts (Goh, 2018). This has direct benefits for faculty members during the academic appointment, appraisal and promotion process; for an academic community by making scholarly activities easily accessible, and for an institution by making academic and scholarly activities by faculty members both easily accessible and visible.

More on expanded blogpost link below


Goh, P.S. eLearning in Medical Education - Costs and Value Add. The Asia Pacific Scholar (TAPS). Published online: 2 May, TAPS 2018, 3(2), 58-60. DOI:

Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. An innovative approach to digitally flip the classroom by using an online "graffiti wall" with a blog. Med Teach. 2016 Aug;38(8):858. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Puentedura, R. R. (2013, May 29). SAMR: Moving from enhancement to transformation [Web log post].
Retrieved from

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submitted March 1, 2019

Goh PS., Sandars J (2019). Increasing tensions in the ubiquitous use of technology for medical education. Med Teach. Accepted for publication, 22 October 2018, published online 16 January 2019.
DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1540773

Chapter Proofreading submitted March 3, 2019

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(27 May 2019 - 14 June 2019)
(see page 9)

Tip - anytime you are introduced to a new concept/idea - do concurrent text, image and video searches, using search engine optimisation strategies embedded in search engines (e.g. Google) to highlight most clicked, most read, most often cited/linked to/recommended digital online content.

Tip - as you do first cut review of content (both in syllabus, and which you find yourself), look for key words-concepts-illustrations, and build you learning, and new searches - deep dives around these. While always looking to "use" (by discussing, referencing, citing ... and asking questions about) these ideas - skills - impressions/opinions/viewpoints (defend-argue for-examine from multiple viewpoints). Idea is to "transfer" to practice. Apply, and be able to apply, to practice.

Cristancho SM, Goldszmidt M, Lingard L, Watling C. Qualitative research
essentials for medical education. Singapore Med J. 2018 Dec;59(12):622-627. doi: 
10.11622/smedj.2018093. Epub 2018 Jul 16. Review.

Ramani S, Mann K. Introducing medical educators to qualitative study design:
Twelve tips from inception to completion. Med Teach. 2016 May;38(5):456-63. doi: 
10.3109/0142159X.2015.1035244. Epub 2015 Apr 21.

Sullivan, G. M., & Sargeant, J. (2011). Qualities of qualitative research: part I. Journal of graduate medical education, 3(4), 449–452. doi:10.4300/JGME-D-11-00221.1

Sargeant J. (2012). Qualitative Research Part II: Participants, Analysis, and Quality Assurance. Journal of graduate medical education, 4(1), 1–3. doi:10.4300/JGME-D-11-00307.1
(8 June 2019 - 11 June 2019)

(see page 4)

(deadline 6 February 2019; accepted for in-conference workshop on 2 May 2019)
(early bird registration ends 25 May 2019)

Bullock, A., & Webb, K. (2015). Technology in postgraduate medical education: a dynamic influence on learning?. Postgraduate medical journal, 91(1081), 646-50.

Invitation, visiting scholar, Jakarka, 9 September 2019 to 13 September 2019

Goh P, Sandars J, 2019, 'Digital Scholarship – rethinking educational scholarship in the digital world', MedEdPublish, 8, [2], 15,

Student Engagement Online: What Works and Why (Tomorrow's Professor post 1720)

How Technology, Applied Storytelling, and Theatre can Humanise Values for Effective Practice

The pre-conference workshop will explore, illustrate and demonstrate how technology, applied storytelling, and theatre can nurture values for effective practice. The workshop will be highly interactive and experiential. From the use of simple storytelling techniques to more complex roleplays, participants will experience moments that promote reflection, and improve empathy, communication skills, teamwork, and professionalism.

A follow-up main conference panel discussion will go deeper into the literature and evidence underpinning the use of technology, applied storytelling, and theatre to humanise our values for effective practice. It will also involve the audience in interactive discussions, and a theatrical experience. Our aims for both the pre-conference workshop and main conference panel discussion are for participants to understand the pedagogical implications of applied storytelling and theatre in medical education, to immediately use and apply practical techniques in clinical setting, and to evoke feelings and convictions related to the session theme – to know, do, and feel.

"“In your career, you’ll have a choice: to be a physician or a healer. Be a healer.”

"Nurses are proof that superheroes live among us." - Tan Hsueh Yun, The Straits Times, Sunday, Jul 7, 2019 

Technology to Nurture Values for Effective Practice
Poh-Sun Goh

(Why before What and How)

How can technology inspire, role model, promote reflection and interactive discussion, and offer a roadmap on how to nurture values for effective practice?

We are inspired by stories. These may be told or recounted orally, in written form, performed (as a simulated performance, in theatre or the media - video, television or the movies), observed in person or from video - all of these with added reflection, which may be guided or as an interactive peer review, learning and insight developing exercise.

These stories may mimic, or be a record of real life. Professional practice, health and disease, and healthcare, are replete with narratives of suffering, comfort, and joy. These can be told from a patient’s, relatives, caregivers or professional healthcare practitioner (or member of the healthcare team’s) perspective. Or from multiple perspectives. An example of a narrative-story which gives insight into how a professional in the palliative care sector-practice might approach dying patients was recently published in the New York Times (Puri, 2019). The ending scene from the 1991 movie ‘The Doctor’ illustrates how an initially insensitive, emotionally distant medical practitioner develops a very personal insight into the perspective of the healthcare system when he himself became a patient, and was motivated to introduce a patient centred experience for medical students in his medical school’s medical program. The book ‘A taste of my own medicine: When the doctor is the patient’ by Edward E Rosenbaum in 1991 narrates a similar story.

While not only engaging, and thought provoking, these narratives and stories can encourage all of us to reflect on our roles in health and disease. As healthcare practitioners to improve our empathy, communication skills, teamwork, organisational abilities and professionalism. We can become more sensitive to a patient’s, or relative’s-caregiver’s point of view. We can become better at showing first that we care, to reassure, comfort, and communicate better. With more skill and sensitivity. To give attention to the the human side of medicine, to complement the scientific and technical side of medical practice.

Technology is one method to disseminate and share stories and narratives (Goh, 2016). To scale up our educational and training efforts. To engage students and practitioners beyond the classroom. Before, during and after traditional classroom training. We can use open source content, and low cost-free platforms to communicate with, and engage our students, and fellow practitioners. Technology makes it easier for us to create and curate content. And share this. Through websites, blogs, apps. Mobile devices with free and low cost, easy to use software and apps make it relatively simple and easy to create and edit, or curate multimedia, and video content.

As with all use of technology to enhance, and augment our educational and training efforts, these efforts should be driven first by our instructional and educational objectives, or pedagogy before technology. With no tech, or low cost, open source, free technology and platforms then carefully and intelligently chosen to support, and augment our teaching and learning objectives.


Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Puri, S. 2019. The lesson of impermanence. New York Times. Published and accessed on 7 March 2019.

Movie ‘The Doctor’ 1991

Review of ‘A taste of my own medicine: When the doctor is the patient’ by Edward E. Rosenbaum

'creativity and compassion - teamwork, communication, empathy, and winning trust'

above from

Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

"Medical Educator Roles for the Future", focusing on how Technology, Machine Learning, AI and the like will impact the way we educate healthcare professionals and the way we provide care.

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IAMSE20 Denver, USA

Medical Educator Roles of the Future 
Poh-Sun Goh

This session will explore how near future technology can impact how we educate healthcare professionals and the way they provide care.
The idea is to examine how “new” methods and platforms for displaying information, engaging an audience, extending and expanding the cognitive presence of “the instructor”, and increasingly "guide" will transform the learning experience, and training outcomes, of our educational efforts; and also explore how these same technologies, which will include Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning, Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), online and re-imagined out-of-the-simulation-center skill training experiences (inspired and modelled after gaming platforms), can augment, enhance, and transform how we educate and train healthcare professionals, along the whole continuum of learning, from undergraduate learning, through postgraduate training, to lifelong learning and continuing professional development settings.

Poh-Sun Goh
Associate Professor and Senior Consultant, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National University of Singapore and National University Hospital and Associate Member, Centre for Medical Education, NUS

Poh-Sun (MBBS(Melb) 1987, FRCR 1993, FAMS 1998, MHPE(Maastricht) 2012 and FAMEE 2017) practices on the clinician educator tract (80/20 time allocation clinical/education) augmenting his education and training time allocation with technology, and regular cumulative early morning focused scholarly efforts, spent developing and evaluating the use of open access online digital repositories in clinical training, and medical education faculty development, under a mastery training and deliberate practice framework. He focuses his efforts on the challenge of transfer to practice, in the widest possible settings, through use of reusable comprehensive digital content, iterative low cost proof of concept implementation combined with collaborations and partnerships to scale, all anchored on a solid foundation of theory and evidence.

(including links to use of AI)

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Goh, P.S. Presenting the outline of a proposal for a 5 part program of medical education research using eLearning or Technology enhanced learning to support Learning through the continuum of Undergraduate, through Postgraduate to Lifelong learning settings. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:55. Epub 2016 Dec 7. 

Samarasekera DD, Goh PS, Lee SS, Gwee MCE. The clarion call for a third wave
in medical education to optimise healthcare in the twenty-first century. Med
Teach. 2018 Oct;40(10):982-985. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2018.1500973. Epub 2018 Oct


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