Thursday, 13 July 2017

15th APMEC 2018 - ESME, Pre-conference workshop, Main conference symposium

"As learning analytics data provides a snapshot of how engaged students are and how they are performing, this could be considered a useful indication of where excellent teaching is taking place"
above quote from

" was "trivial" - meaning easy - to tie the information directly to people and reveal exactly where they went online, the terms they searched for and the things they bought  ...The data analysed by the pair connected a list of sites and links visited to a customer identifier. However, he said, by drawing on public information that people share about their browsing habits, it became possible to connect that entry on a list to an individual."
above quote from

"...Enter, Engaged Time .... the Attention Web, measuring visitor activity by tracking scrolling, mouse movements or keystrokes –  .....know how many people are actively consuming .. content and for how long ... Engaged Time correlates with .... likelihood to return to ... site as well as reading comprehension" 
above quote from

"... As large-scale data have become available, so have emerging analytics methods, based on multidisciplinary knowledge: machine learning, text mining, Bayesian statistics, randomised closed-loop network experiments, social networks methods, and more. These are elements of a new computational social science coming together for an understanding of how urban activities can be understood. This will support the emergence of a new e-social science..."
above quote from article by Robert J. Kaufman link below

(from Reuters, on 19 July 2017)

(from BBC, on 25 May 2017, "Amazon's newest bricks and mortar store opens in New York)

"...Today, we’re no longer trusting machines just to do something, but to decide what to do and when to do it. The next generation will grow up in an age where it’s normal to be surrounded by autonomous agents, with or without cute names...How do we teach our children to question not only the security and privacy implications but also the ethical and commercial intentions of a device designed by marketers?..."
above quote from article below


Pre-conference workshop
How to use data (analytics) to inform eTeaching and eLearning Goh Poh Sun (GPS), Sergio Hernandez-Marin (SHM), Lim Wee Khee (LWK)

To illustrate and demonstrate the utility of off the shelf/free(ly available) data analytics to inform eTeaching and give visibility of eLearning (activities) by our students.

Workshop description
The workshop will be based on actual case studies from an experienced medical educator (GPS), who has been using Google Blogger (with in built data analytics), exclusively (rather than PowerPoint) for clinical teaching, and medical education faculty development over the last 6 years (in undergraduate, postgraduate and CME/CPD settings). Co-facilitators in the workshop (SHM and LWK) will share added insights from a technical-strategic (SHM) and market-engagement (LWK) perspective. Participants will have the opportunity to build their own prototype teaching blog (with use of Google Blogger as an illustrative freely available, and free to use platform), together with seeing how embedding additional online tools into a teaching blog (like Slideshare, SurveyMonkey, and Padlet) can give educators further data and visibility of student engagement, and actual learning within an eLearning process and platform. Participants will be expected to have engaged in one to two hours of pre-reading, and a pre-workshop exercise. Participants should bring a WiFi enabled laptop or tablet computer to the workshop.

Who should attend
Health professions educators (Medical, Nursing and Allied Health), and staff who have an administrative and leadership role in supporting and working with eLearning/Technology enhanced learning teams.

Main conference symposium
Using data (analytics) to inform eTeaching and eLearning Goh Poh Sun (GPS), Sergio Hernandez-Marin (SHM), Lim Wee Khee (LWK)

Brief description of session
The central thesis of this symposium will be to demonstrate and illustrate how data (analytics) can inform an educational practitioner (in their educational practice), and anchor scholarly teaching and educational scholarship.
The three panelists bring (to the audience) long standing practical frontline and academic experience in their roles as a clinical teacher and in medical education faculty development (GPS), in data analytics and strategic thinking (SHM), and in the real world application of social media analytics in business (LWK).
This interactive symposium and panel discussion (with the audience) will be anchored by a purpose built dedicated presentation online blog (for approximately 30 minutes to one hour of pre-session online review BEFORE the session), each symposium presenter giving a (maximum) 10 minute short overview presentation, followed by ONE HOUR of interactive live discussion (during the session) with the audience (who should bring a WiFi enabled mobile phone, Tablet or Laptop to the session to engage with the panelists - both synchronously and asynchronously, the day before, during, and day after the symposium).


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(as of 18 October 2017 @ 1019am)

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Opening comments for the pre-conference workshop, and main conference symposium 
by Poh Sun
first draft on October 11, 2017 at 0900am (updated on Oct 12, 2017 at 0445am; and October 13, 2017 at 0345am)

How to use, and Using data (analytics) to inform eTeaching and eLearning
Why before How, and What

In this workshop, and conference symposium, we will focus our attention mainly at an individual, small group, and class level, in a local and localised context, the micro level (lecturer-content-student ←→ student); while discussing more generally how data insights (analytics) scale up at the meso (institutional), and macro (global) level. Our intention is to introduce, and anchor new, and key ideas using analogies and case examples familiar to the majority of this audience (at the conference), while encouraging you to reflect on your own experience, and consider how to translate, and transfer these ideas to your own practice.

We will start out with a few assumptions. From our own experience (as teachers, and students), supported by evidence from the educational and training literature. That we need to know our students and trainees. Their learning and training needs and requirements. Their background. Capabilities and skills. Knowledge base. Motivation. That students and trainees who are interested, and engaged learn better. That attendance, and effort, on a regular and cumulate basis correlates with better learning outcomes and performance. More effort, training harder, longer, on a more regular basis, leads to better, and higher levels of performance. That active, interactive, constructive, contextual, and reflective learning activities and behaviours lead to better outcomes. Learn, practice and apply, with self-reflection, and peer, as well as instructor feedback (and feedback from intelligent, scripted (test-feedback), and AI or artificial intelligence imbued systems).

Let's briefly examine the traditional "classroom" or "class", and compare and contrast this with a digital class, or "flipped classroom" format, where digital and face to face student-learning material/activities-teacher engagement and interaction takes place.

Let's also examine this topic using a foundation of educational pedagogy and learning science, as well as illustrate this with concrete examples that all of us are familiar with, as both teachers, and students (yes, we were all former students and trainees, and are still, and should be, learning). Let's also lighten up the discussion, using culinary analogies, that we are all familiar with, and many of us are passionate about (food, the dining experience, food preparation, the culinary arts and science).

Our aim as teachers is, and should be primarily to not only "teach" and instruct our students and trainees, but also to create the conditions which encourage, promote and support independent, and ongoing learning; recognising that our students progress from undergraduate learning, through postgraduate training, to lifelong learning phases.

This includes preparing, and selecting or curating learning material, now invariably in digital formats (though print still has a distinct role for "deeper" reads, slower reads, and potentially more memorable experience); and creating the conditions to promote learning, and "transfer" of knowledge, skills and "feeling", attitudes and opinions about topics, themes, and market relevant and valuable skills (from classroom to workplace, from theory to practice, and ongoing performance, by reflective, ever improving practitioners).

How do we know, as teachers, that we are succeeding in this endeavor?
What evidence, indicators, and "metrics" can we use?
What data, both performance, and observational can we rely on?

We know from the educational literature that time, effort, and reflective practice, with feedback is required to learn, and acquire knowledge, skills, and professional behaviors and attitudes. In a traditional classroom setting a teacher relies on a (deep) knowledge of the background, learning capacity, motivation, and developmental/learning stage of each student and trainee; as part of an ongoing, iterative process. With the increasing use, and reliance on digital content, and engagement platforms to not only deliver content to our students, but also anchor the learning and training process, we (as teachers) can take advantage of data (ongoing, and live/real-time) to give us insights not only into our students/student cohorts, but also to help us in our role as teachers, preparing and curating material, using and highlighting this material, to adapt our teaching and training process, and both personalize the educational experience, as well as offer the possibility of learning-on-demand, self-service learning and training, either one-off, modular, or in a longer term programmatic learning and training process.

Let's use a specific example to illustrate this, case-based learning in undergraduate, and postgraduate medical education and training. This educational paradigm was initially developed at the Harvard Business School, and subsequently adopted by medical schools (as problem based learning, initially at McMaster University) and postgraduate medical training programs.

The aim of case-based learning is to illustrate the application of basic science to clinical practice, and give undergraduates the opportunity to see how these ideas translate to clinical practice. For more senior medical students, and postgraduate trainees, a series of clinical problems, or "cases" are presented for both thematic, and topic based practice, as well as in a mixed, random format. The idea of presenting a spectrum of clinical problems, in both similar and contrasting manner, is to mimic real-life clinical practice, and illustrate not only typical, "classic" and exemplar cases, but also those clinical scenarios with exaggerated, or less obvious, subtle features, throughout the clinical spectrum, as well as look-alike's and similar appearing, but different diagnostic categories. In order for an undergraduate, and postgraduate trainee to take full advantage of the educational and training potential of each clinical case, teachers require not only insight and information about the previous experience of each student and trainee, but also their performance level, and level of engagement at each step of the educational and training process. Teachers and instructors are also required to provide additional learning and reference material, (interactive) FAQs checklists (increasingly in the future educational "Chatbots"), and customisable, and self-selectable learning and training pathways, with personalized, curated, relevant, and useful material, and feedback on performance; as well as providing opportunities for exploratory and discovery learning. Providing visibility of the level, degree, and form of engagement of each student and trainee with the educational content, and performance with each training activity is the aim of the educational and training process. Data (analytics) has a role to add to, and supplement live classroom, and physical observation by teachers and instructors.

Learning, like exercise, is an ideally habitual, regular, cumulative, daily activity; which includes many of the following steps - exposure, time commitment, active engagement with both material, and use of this material (note taking, asking questions, reflections-recall-integrative activities, problem solving and assignments, interactive and group activities, student-instructor and student-student interactions, i.e learn, practice and apply; with feedback and reflection. Regularly. Iteratively. Simultaneously building a foundation, and engaging with more complex ideas, tasks, and activities.

We can use data, by tracking online behaviour (webpage analytics, data and analysis - location, individual participation, frequency and time spent, what material is engaged with, in what sequence), intermediate and "final" learning and training outcomes (textual analytics, data and analysis - note taking, questions and answers, discussion points - through participation on discussion forums, bulletin boards, peer feedback-peer evaluation-peer critique activities; as well as individual, group and team assignments and projects, through submissions on online bulletin boards and posting spaces, and tracked collaborative working, wiki-like spaces). Focusing on student and trainee participation, engagement, and activities - frequency, duration, quantity and quality, growth and development; or how often, for how long, how much, how good, how persistent, and evidence of professional development and growth (increasing insightful, complex, integrative thinking; and performance of individual and team based skills).

What is the role of the teacher and instructor in this learning process, and journey? We can assist by creating the conditions which will encourage, facilitate and promote learning (deep rather than superficial); go beyond "suggestions" and "recommendations" (you might like ..... or find useful ....) to providing training plans, and learning paths (with content, and activities, which build on each other, and involve individual, group and team based activities); providing timely feedback, support and encouragement, to continue and take regular, daily, sequential, cumulative steps along the learning and discovery journey. Think of the analogy of the walk, hike, and climb.

Let's now explore and examine evidence for, and against the utility of learning analytics from the LACE Evidence Hub.

Aneesha Bakharia, Linda Corrin, Paula de Barba, Gregor Kennedy, Dragan Gasevic, Raoul Mulder, David Williams, Shane Dawson and Lori Lockyer (2016). "A Conceptual Framework linking Learning Design with Learning Analytics". In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge (LAK '16). ACM, New York.

Lockyer, L., Heathcote, E., & Dawson, S. (2013). Informing Pedagogical Action Aligning Learning Analytics With Learning Design. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(10), 1439–1459. doi:10.1177/0002764213479367

Lori Lockyer, Google Scholar

L Corrin, G Kennedy, P de Barba, L Lockyer, D Gaševic, D Williams, ... (2016)
Completing the Loop: Returning Meaningful Learning Analytic Data to Teachers. A Handbook for Educators and Learning Analytics Specialists
Sydney: Office for Learning and Teaching.

Gašević, D., Dawson, S. & Siemens, G. Let’s not forget: Learning analytics are about learning. TECHTRENDS TECH TRENDS (2015) 59: 64.

Applied learning analytics to class and program learning activities from Poh-Sun Goh

above from

"I see and I forget, I hear and I remember, I do and I understand"

Google image search for "the cone of learning"

Attendance ≠ Engagement or Learning
Participation ≠ Attention or Interest
Reading ≠ Retention
Listening ≠ Recall
Viewing ≠ Sustained interest, Attention or Learning

Purchasing or borrowing a book does not mean it is read
"Textbook behaviour"

Bookmarking a website, filing a paper (to be read later), clipping a document (to be read later), printing a document, or downloading a document or paper does not mean it is read later

Use it or lose it, What is not used, recalled, discussed, worked on, integrated with, thought about, written about, applied, modified, built on, is not "learnt", and will be "unlearnt".

(above updated on 16 October 2017 at 1215am)

From a user's, student's or trainee's perspective

What is valuable, or valued is

Time (efficient, or "Don't waste my time", "It was a waste of time", "Took too long to review")
Content (good and high quality, people involved, guidance and guides, structure)
(Of) Value (unique, new "experience"; added value/value-add)

(above updated on 16 October 2017 at 1017am)

From a teacher's, or instructor's perspective

What is required, and useful are

Real-Time, or Close to Real-Time
Representative, Comprehensive
Covering as many "touch-points", "contact-points", learning encounters, learning activities
Accessible (easily)
Time, training, skill, frameworks to visualize, make sense of observations (live), and data (online)
(To) adjust, customize, modify, educational content, and activities to match learning requirements and educational needs

Think multiple PDSA cycles on stepwise, or increasing improvement slope graphic

(above updated on 16 October 2017 at 1052am)

From an adminstrator's, educational scholar's or user's perspective

Data protection
Individual good practice(s) - identification (passwords, 2FA, biometrics), personal information sharing (DOB, email addresses, mobile phone numbers, addresses, parent's names), not logging in, anonymisation, location tracking, "do not track", "do not store" - for "public" "free" web-browsers/mobile Apps, vs institutional intranets/mobile Apps
Codes of practice

Google image search for "web analytics dashboard"

Google image search for "social analytics dashboard"

Google image search for 'social network visualizer"

(above updated on 16 October 2017 at 1205pm)

above from

Imaging of Respiratory Disorders: M2 Pathology correlated with Radiology 

For pre-lecture previewing and pre-reading (below) - you have a choice of how you would like to pre-view and review this material.

As the didactic presentation content is already available on the blog, as segmented video, and eBook; at the "live" lecture, only a 5 minute review of key ideas and principles will take place, followed by an opportunity for students to ask questions based on what they have reviewed (for 15 minutes), after which we will engage in 20 minutes of "live" interactive CXR problem solving (from unknown CXR images sets below).

Opening Set of Unknown Cases (thematically related to pre-test quiz in eLecture) - links to each case below: (from 0840am to 0900am)
(left sided tension pneumothorax)
(right lower lobe pneumonia)
(right upper lobe lung carcinoma)
(pulmonary oedema)
(left sided tension pneumothorax, 2nd or another example)
(right sided loculated pleural effusion)
(inwardly depressed right lower rib fractures, with associated lung contusion and haemothorax)

Q and A during class: one question from class on meniscus sign in pleural effusion (0900am to 0905am)

for after class review - a series of CXR showing increasing size pleural effusions
(small right pleural effusion)
(small to increasing moderate size right pleural effusion on follow up CXR)
(moderate size left pleural effusion)
(moderate size left pleural effusion)
(large left pleural effusion)

Follow up Set of Unknown Cases screenshot below - from Instagram link  (from 0905am to 0920am)

Example of the use of online cases in a radiology residency tutorial above: For a spot quiz followed by case review and feedback (using 10 cases from

15 minute spot quiz in our "internet cafe" which has 30 plus workstations - on 10 online Chest Radiology cases (CXR +/- selected CT sections)

Each resident emails brief statement of the diagnosis and also justification for this diagnosis for each case to the instructor (standing in photo)
(This allows each resident to individually engage with, and give an opinion on each CXR
which reflects what radiologists actually do on a day to day basis)

This is then followed by a group discussion of each case with the instructor

The pedagogical principles underpinning this practice are
1. active learning, with authentic real world case examples (self-testing), + feedback (targeted, personalised - face to face/group/asynchronous to email submissions)
2. a platform for distributed practice (spreading out practice sessions)
3. mixed (or interleaved) practice (see below)

Message to participants:

I will be presenting directly from a website (weblink below). All the material will be available for review by participants before, during and after the session. 

May I request that all participants bring along a WiFi enabled device, so that you can follow the presentation directly from your mobile device. Please log-in to the WiFi network before the presentation starts, have the presentation website loaded onto your device, and test that this website loads properly on your device before the session starts.

Thank you.

With warmest regards,


"Technology enhanced learning or eLearning allows educators to expand access to educational content, promotes engagement with students and makes it easier for students to access educational material at a time, place and pace which suits them. The challenge for educators beginning their eLearning journey is to decide where to start, which includes the choice of an eLearning tool and platform. This article will share one educator's decision making process, and experience using blogs as a flexible and versatile integrated eLearning tool and platform. Apart from being a cost effective/free tool and platform, blogs offer the possibility of creating a hyperlinked indexed content repository, for both created and curated educational material; as well as a distribution and engagement tool and platform. Incorporating pedagogically sound activities and educational practices into a blog promote a structured templated teaching process, which can be reproduced. Moving from undergraduate to postgraduate training, educational blogs supported by a comprehensive online case-based repository offer the possibility of training beyond competency towards proficiency and expert level performance through a process of deliberate practice. By documenting educational content and the student engagement and learning process, as well as feedback and personal reflection of educational sessions, blogs can also form the basis for a teaching portfolio, and provide evidence and data of scholarly teaching and educational scholarship. Looking into the future, having a collection of readily accessible indexed hyperlinked teaching material offers the potential to do on the spot teaching with illustrative material called up onto smart surfaces, and displayed on holographic interfaces."

Above abstract from 
Goh PS. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9.
[2015 Nov 11:1-2. Epub ahead of print]
"By reviewing research on medical performance and education, the author describes evidence for these representations and their development within the expert- performance framework. He uses the research to generate suggestions for improved training of medical students and professionals. Two strategies— designing learning environments with libraries of cases and creating opportunities for individualized teacher-guided training—should enable motivated individuals to acquire a full set of refined mental representations. Providing the right resources to support the expert- performance approach will allow such individuals to become self-regulated learners—that is, members of the medical community who have the tools to improve their own and their team members’ performances throughout their entire professional careers.'
from abstract of
Ericsson KA. Acquisition and maintenance of medical expertise: a perspective from the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice. Acad Med. 2015 Nov;90(11):1471-86. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000000939. PubMed PMID: 26375267.

Data informed online teaching
How can data analytics inform our teaching practice - a case study using Web 2.0 technologies as the primary online teaching / engagement tool and platform
What (free/and add on) data analytics bundled with Web 2.0 platforms can inform us as educators about student engagement, use of online content and learning when online teaching is delivered via Web 2.0 tech
Poh Sun Goh ... and .......

When is TeL or eL used? Where to use?
Views - volume, timing (quantitative)
Reviews - qualitative and quantitative
Preference over other competing content

Access, convenience
Useful, Fit for purpose
Easy to use, intuitive
Simple to use
Recommended by others

How is it used?
Before, during or after class
Before examination/assessment
To look up something, on demand reference/learning, performance support

With whom?
By whom?

What to use? For what purpose? Instructional objective?
Illustrate theory
Mastery training

Traditional, TeL or blended approaches?
When to use?
How to use?
When to blend?
How to blend?

Where is the value/what is the value; and impact of TeL?
What is the evidence of this?
Actual use - how, when, where, with whom, why
Evaluation of integration and use of Knowledge and Skills learnt, and creation of new knowledge, insights and applications/skills

above from

Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Goh, P.S. The value and impact of eLearning or Technology enhanced learning from one perspective of a Digital Scholar. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:31. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

"Time on task

It takes time to learn anything worthwhile. To accumulate knowledge and skills. To integrate this new learning, and be able to, and be confident applying this in the workplace, and real life settings.

This is the difference between undertaking a program of training, and formal courses, compared with short symposia and workshops, or an isolated lecture. Formal training programs gives students time, space, and a place to learn. On a regular basis. This promotes a cumulative increase in learning. Combining theoretical learning with practical case studies integrates basic principles with practice points, and promotes transfer of learning from the classroom to the real world. Online learning programs should include elements from traditional classroom practices which facilitate learning. This includes scheduled time to review the learning material, to work on applying what is learnt by working on assessments and assignments, individually and by learning collaboratively with peers; as well as provide opportunities for timely feedback from instructors."

above from
Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

HBX Disruptive Strategy with Clayton Christensen / Platform Demo

Allchin, D. (2013). Problem- and Case-Based Learning in Science: An Introduction to Distinctions, Values, and Outcomes. CBE Life Sciences Education, 12(3), 364–372.


Instagram stream (below) as hyperlinked, online-mobile accessible, interactive SlideDeck

above and below from

Focus on user / customer experience (above)

Focus on "job to be done" (hired for) see below

above from

above from

above and below from

Medical Education Peer Reviewed Publications (selected)

The intention of writing a recent series of reflection pieces (article 5, 6, 7, 9 and 11), as well the other articles below, was to set down in print as many of the useful ideas / and pointers I could think of, and which I have found useful and currently use, on the subject of TeL and implementing this, distilled from my reading, practice, and scholarly inquiry since 2002, as well as from the last 6 years of faculty development presentations, symposia and workshops I have been involved in designing and have participated in at NUS, at APMEC and AMEE; and have presented as invited speaker to conferences in Colombo, Sri Lanka; Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Jakarta, Indonesia; and as visiting professor in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
(articles in Medical Teacher and MedEdPublish have been viewed over 10,500 times in 2015, 2016 and 2017, as of 12 September 2017, and papers 2, 4, 5 and 6 are amongst the top rated papers in Oct, Nov, Dec 2016, Jan 2017 and July 2017 - see below)

1. Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

2. Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. Insights from the culinary arts for medical educators. MedEdPublish. 2017 Jan; 6(1), Paper No:10. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

3. Goh, P.S. A proposal for a grading and ranking method as the first step toward developing a scoring system to measure the value and impact of viewership of online material in medical education - going beyond “clicks” and views toward learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:62. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

4. Goh, P.S. Presenting the outline of a proposal for a 5 part program of medical education research using eLearning or Technology enhanced learning to support Learning through the continuum of Undergraduate, through Postgraduate to Lifelong learning settings. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:55. Epub 2016 Dec 7. 

5. Goh, P.S. The value and impact of eLearning or Technology enhanced learning from one perspective of a Digital Scholar. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:31. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

6. Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

7. Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

above 7 articles in MedEdPublish

next 6 articles in Medical Teacher

8. Sandars, J., Goh, P.S. Is there a need for a specific educational scholarship for using e-learning in medical education? Med Teach. 2016 Oct;38(10):1070-1071. Epub 2016 April 19.

9. Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16

10. Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. An innovative approach to digitally flip the classroom by using an online "graffiti wall" with a blog. Med Teach. 2016 Aug;38(8):858. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

11. Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

12. Sandars J, Patel RS, Goh PS, Kokatailo PK, Lafferty N. The importance of educational theories for facilitating learning when using technology in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Mar 17:1-4.

13. Dong C, Goh PS. Twelve tips for the effective use of videos in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Feb; 37(2):140-5.

14. Liaw SY, Wong LF, Chan SW, Ho JT, Mordiffi SZ, Ang SB, Goh PS, Ang EN. Designing and evaluating an interactive multimedia Web-based simulation for developing nurses' competencies in acute nursing care: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2015 Jan 12;17(1):e5.

"...By posting, searching and liking, we perform the free labour that powers one of the most profitable sectors of the economy..."
above quote from book review below

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