Friday, 23 December 2016

Moving forward - Future plans

In the next year, I am going to focus specifically on using an "Agile Technology Enhanced MedEd Research" paradigm, modelled after tech startups, underpinned by the principles of deliberate practice and mastery training that Jeroen van Merriënboer, and K. Anders Ericsson have extensively written about in their published writing - by using the thousands of (anonymised) thematic radiology cases (steadily approaching 10,000 cases) that I have been systematically accumulating over the last 5 years, and continue to accumulate, made available online (with no annotations, labels or answers); combined with data analytics (quantitative) + qualitative MedEd research techniques.

Goh, P.S. Presenting the outline of a proposal for a 5 part program of medical education research using eLearning or Technology enhanced learning to support Learning through the continuum of Undergraduate, through Postgraduate to Lifelong learning settings. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:55. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

"By reviewing research on medical performance and education, the author describes evidence for these representations and their development within the expert- performance framework. He uses the research to generate suggestions for improved training of medical students and professionals. Two strategies— designing learning environments with libraries of cases and creating opportunities for individualized teacher-guided training—should enable motivated individuals to acquire a full set of refined mental representations. Providing the right resources to support the expert- performance approach will allow such individuals to become self-regulated learners—that is, members of the medical community who have the tools to improve their own and their team members’ performances throughout their entire professional careers.'
from abstract of
Ericsson KA. Acquisition and maintenance of medical expertise: a perspective from the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice. Acad Med. 2015 Nov;90(11):1471-86. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000000939. PubMed PMID: 26375267.

above from

This article investigates the relation between mind wandering and the spacing effect in inductive learning. Participants studied works of art by different artists grouped in blocks, where works by a particular artist were either presented all together successively (the massed condition), or interleaved with the works of other artists (the spaced condition). The works of 24 artists were shown, with 12, 15, or 18 works by each artist being provided as exemplars. Later, different works by the same artists were presented for a test of the artists' identity. During the course of studying these works, participants were probed for mind wandering. It was found that people mind wandered more when the exemplars were presented in a massed rather than in a spaced manner, especially as the task progressed. There was little mind wandering and little difference between massed and spaced conditions toward the beginning of study. People were better able to correctly attribute the new works to the appropriate artist (inductive learning) when (a) they were in the spaced condition and (b) they had not been mind wandering. This research suggests that inductive learning may be influenced by mind wandering and that the impairment in learning with massed practice (compared to spaced practice) may be attributable, at least in part, to attentional factors-people are "on task" less fully when the stimuli are massed rather than spaced.
above abstract from
Metcalfe J, Xu J. People mind wander more during massed than spaced inductive learning. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 2016 Jun;42(6):978-84. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000216. Epub 2015 Nov 30.

Inductive learning -- that is, learning a new concept or category by observing exemplars -- happens constantly, for example, when a baby learns a new word or a doctor classifies x-rays. What influence does the spacing of exemplars have on induction? Compared with massing, spacing enhances long-term recall, but we expected spacing to hamper induction by making the commonalities that define a concept or category less apparent. We asked participants to study multiple paintings by different artists, with a given artist's paintings presented consecutively (massed) or interleaved with other artists' paintings (spaced). We then tested induction by asking participants to indicate which studied artist (Experiments 1a and 1b) or whether any studied artist (Experiment 2) painted each of a series of new paintings. Surprisingly, induction profited from spacing, even though massing apparently created a sense of fluent learning: Participants rated massing as more effective than spacing, even after their own test performance had demonstrated the opposite.
above abstract from

above from

Medical Education Peer Reviewed Publications (selected)

The intention of writing a recent series of reflection pieces (article 5, 6, 7, 9 and 11), as well the other articles below, was to set down in print as many of the useful ideas / and pointers I could think of, and which I have found useful and currently use, on the subject of TeL and implementing this, distilled from my reading, practice, and scholarly inquiry since 2002, as well as from the last 6 years of faculty development presentations, symposia and workshops I have been involved in designing and have participated in at NUS, at APMEC and AMEE; and have presented as invited speaker to conferences in Colombo, Sri Lanka; Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Jakarta, Indonesia; and as visiting professor in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
(articles in Medical Teacher and MedEdPublish have been viewed over 5,000 times in the 2015 and 2016, and papers 2, 4, 5 and 6 are amongst the top rated papers in Oct, Nov, Dec 2016 and Jan 2017 - see below)

1. Goh, P.S. Learning Analytics in Medical Education. MedEdPublish. 2017 Apr; 6(2), Paper No:5. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

2. Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. Insights from the culinary arts for medical educators. MedEdPublish. 2017 Jan; 6(1), Paper No:10. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

3. Goh, P.S. A proposal for a grading and ranking method as the first step toward developing a scoring system to measure the value and impact of viewership of online material in medical education - going beyond “clicks” and views toward learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:62. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

4. Goh, P.S. Presenting the outline of a proposal for a 5 part program of medical education research using eLearning or Technology enhanced learning to support Learning through the continuum of Undergraduate, through Postgraduate to Lifelong learning settings. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:55. Epub 2016 Dec 7. 

5. Goh, P.S. The value and impact of eLearning or Technology enhanced learning from one perspective of a Digital Scholar. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:31. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

6. Goh, P.S. A series of reflections on eLearning, traditional and blended learning. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:19. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

7. Goh, P.S. Technology enhanced learning in Medical Education: What’s new, what’s useful, and some important considerations. MedEdPublish. 2016 Oct; 5(3), Paper No:16. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
8. Sandars, J., Goh, P.S. Is there a need for a specific educational scholarship for using e-learning in medical education? Med Teach. 2016 Oct;38(10):1070-1071. Epub 2016 April 19.

9. Goh, P.S. eLearning or Technology enhanced learning in medical education - Hope, not Hype. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9): 957-958, Epub 2016 Mar 16

10. Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. An innovative approach to digitally flip the classroom by using an online "graffiti wall" with a blog. Med Teach. 2016 Aug;38(8):858. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

11. Goh, P.S. Using a blog as an integrated eLearning tool and platform. Med Teach. 2016 Jun;38(6):628-9. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

12. Sandars J, Patel RS, Goh PS, Kokatailo PK, Lafferty N. The importance of educational theories for facilitating learning when using technology in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Mar 17:1-4.

13. Dong C, Goh PS. Twelve tips for the effective use of videos in medical education. Med Teach. 2015 Feb; 37(2):140-5.

14. Liaw SY, Wong LF, Chan SW, Ho JT, Mordiffi SZ, Ang SB, Goh PS, Ang EN. Designing and evaluating an interactive multimedia Web-based simulation for developing nurses' competencies in acute nursing care: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2015 Jan 12;17(1):e5.


"A good teacher is continuously observant of student learning behaviour, and seeks evidence of student engagement with the learning material and experience, as well as evidence of learning, and also proactively solicits feedback from students and peers to continually improve the learning
experience. Good chefs can be seen circulating amongst the diners, observing their eating behaviour, chatting with and seeking feedback directly from diners, as well as inviting fellow chefs to sample their culinary offerings. As teachers we have an opportunity to do this both in traditional classrooms, as well as online settings, through our own direct observations, as well as with online behavioural and data analytics. Chefs often modify their cooking, and refine this in “real time”. Similarly teachers can modify their teaching, and the learning experience dynamically, in response to the observed behaviour and feedback from learners and peers."

"We feel that there are close parallels between the culinary arts and practices with the teaching and learning practices of medical educators. In this article we explore this culinary analogy as a means to help medical educators think about their educational practices and to develop their scholarship in medical education."

above from
Goh, P.S., Sandars, J. Insights from the culinary arts for medical educators. MedEdPublish. 2017 Jan; 6(1), Paper No:10. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

(to cite the paper above, please see information at bottom of first page on link below)

Further reading:

Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology edited by Michael J Spector, M. David Merrill, Jan Elen, M. J. Bishop (4th ed. 2014)

The Comprehensive Textbook of Healthcare Simulation edited by Adam I. Levine, Samuel DeMaria Jr., Andrew D Schwartz, Alan J. Sim (2013, corrected 2014 at 2nd printing)

Francesco Ricciardi and Lucio Tommaso De Paolis, “A Comprehensive Review of Serious Games in Health Professions,” International Journal of Computer Games Technology, vol. 2014, Article ID 787968, 11 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/787968

Simulation in Radiology edited by Hugh J. Robertson, John T. Paige, Leonard Bok (2012)
Chapter by Sheila W. Chauvin, Ph. D., M. Ed. (Chapter 5, Educational Principles in Simulation)

Ε. Kaldoudi, S. Konstantinidis, P. Bamidis, “Web 2.0 Approaches for Active, Collaborative Learning in Medicine and Health”, Chapter 7 in: S. Mohammed and J. Fiaidhi (eds.), “Ubiquitous Health and Medical Informatics: The Ubiquity 2.0 Trend and Beyond”, pp. 127-149, IGI Global, Hershey, PA, USA, March 2010 (ISBN: 978-1-61520- 777-0) (2010)

Human Resources for Health 2013;11:4
DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-11-4

J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2006;3(3): 3.

Professional Coaching in Radiology: Practice Corner Douglas E. Green and Suresh Maximin RadioGraphics 2015 35:3, 971-972

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Technology (Jan 2015)

Social Media in Academia: Networked Scholars (Jan 2016)

Social Presence in Online Learning: Multiple Perspectives on Practice and Research (July 2017)

Lowenthal, P.R., Dunlap, J.C. & Stitson, P. TechTrends (2016) 60: 320.

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